Category: Uncategorized

Acuvue Advance Get In Touch With Lenses Are Safe And Easy To Wear

If you have actually been wearing glasses for a variety of years, you might wish to begin thinking of transferring to contact lenses. Glasses can frequently be uneasy as well as not practical, specifically in differing temperature levels. Possibly it’s time for a modification to Acuvue development contact lenses. Get in touch with lenses are in fact safer than glasses. If you move from a great air conditioned room to an area that is warm and also humid, your lenses will haze up. A set of glasses remains on your nose, far from your face, and therefore in a potentially dangerous position. As well as, of course, calls are even more practical. Before transforming to speak to lenses, you need to consult your optometrist to see to it they will appropriate for you, and to obtain a prescription. Contacts are much more secure because they are positioned on your eyes which are shielded by your brow as well as eyelids. Acuvue get in touch with lenses are made by a globe famous company that takes pleasure in an attempted and evaluated credibility in eye care items. You can wear these lenses for a specific amount of time and then throw away them. The lenses likewise have security versus ultra violet rays.

Acuvue lenses make up 79 percent water as well as are made with really soft products that do not damage the eyes whatsoever. They can be worn everyday and are very comfy. Also newbie customers of get in touch with lenses will discover them easy to put on. Acuvue calls give even more comfort than lenses made for long-term use. While they are dust-resistant you will take time obtaining used to them. Get in touches with for long-term use are referred to as RGP (inflexible gas permeable) lenses. Acuvue non reusable contact lenses are offered in 3 kinds. You can obtain lenses for daily usage, lenses that last for approximately a month, or lenses that can last for longer than a month. This is why the non reusable type is so popular. You can choose the kind to match your private demands. The very best feature of non reusable calls is that you can keep them on when you sleep at night.

An unique material made use of in making the lenses permits oxygen to stream right into the eye. This stops cataracts from creating. Before inserting them right into your eyes, make sure your hands are tidy. You have to take certain precautions to ensure your non reusable contact are not damaged. Your eyes are very sensitive to microorganisms, so never ever place calls with filthy hands. If you have not used calls before, take note of the complying with recommendations: begin wearing them gradually. On the first day wear them for a few hrs. Following day wear them for an optimum of 12 hours. Constantly save your lenses in a special container with a proper lens solution. This will keep them safe and extend their life-span. Change the remedy each day – never make use of old option. Slowly increase the period daily until your eyes become accustomed to the lenses. When consulting your optometrist about transforming to contacts, request for guidance regarding exactly how typically to wear them and how usually to change them. If your eyes feel aggravated or you presume a feasible infection, do not wear your contacts. Your optometrist will certainly know about your vision troubles, so she or he will certainly point out any kind of preventative measures worrying the using of contact lenses.

One would certainly think it difficult to set a creek on fire. Yet that was just a small challenge for Relative Charley. Regular readers of this column have actually fulfilled Charley prior to as a disrupter of church rebirths and also perpetrator of floodings. Charley was a natural-born hell raiser– acknowledged leader of, as well as motivation for, stripling family members. There is yet another experience which must be videotaped lest chroniclers question the honesty of a story oft told in the Boot Heel of Missouri, the land of my youth. Our Uncle Slap, a blacksmith renowned for his perpetual activity equipment, had a nearly-full 50-gallon container of carbide. Formerly, he needed to manufacture his own torch gas with carbide and also water in a hand-assembled storage tank. He had shoved it right into an edge when pressed acetylene became available for welding. When Relative Charley uncovered he can snitch a handful of carbide through a loosened board in the store wall, he believed he had uncovered the mommy lode. It was a risky procedure that made Slap worried. Carbide is remarkable things. When mixed with water it sends out acetylene gas that sheds with a hot, intense fire.

It additionally makes a dandy nitroglycerin when captured in a lightweight container or when fired up in quantity. At one time it was commonly made use of for automobile fronts lights, miners’ lamps and also ceremonial cannons. Charley’s interest, of course, lay in its spectacular residential properties. They included lard cans, a mug of water, as well as a teaspoon of carbide in a Bull Durham sack. He soon instructed his more youthful followers exactly how to construct marvelous, noisy, bombs. For the modern-day generation, it ought to be explained that Bull Durham was a preferred cigarette smoking tobacco once upon a time. It was offered in little cotton sacks with a yellow drawstring as well as a packet of cigarette papers pasted sideways. Vacant Bull Durham sacks were never ever thoughtlessly discarded after the original components went up in smoke. The combination cost only a nickel. They had numerous secondary usages. Young boys kept marbles, coins, fortunate charms, and also various other small treasures in them.

Ranking & Buying Guide: Top duvet covers

Duvet covers – buying guide, ranking and tests in 2019

Before spending to acquire a duvet cover, it would be wise to gather some information about this product. A random purchase risks falling on a model whose characteristics do not match your needs. The information to be considered mainly concerns its constituent material, the size and the weaving of this article. Not having enough time to consult our buying guide and the classification of a few models in full, here are the covers that deserve your attention. CTI 042753 Frozen Winter is made of 100% natural cotton, marking its softness. This product is soft and at the same time light. It is accompanied by fibers which wick away perspiration in an optimal way. Catherine Lansfield Home City Scape is made of cotton and polyester. Its weaving is tight, marking its resistance. Its closure is practical by the presence of pressure buttons.

Comparative table

How to choose a duvet cover?

The purchase of a duvet cover should in no case be done at random if you do not want to invest in a bad product. This is why, in this guide to buying the best duvet covers, we give you the characteristics to take into account before purchasing. Our advice for buying a good duvet cover is oriented towards the consideration of three characteristics of the product: the material of which it is made, its size and its weaving.

Purchase guide

The material that constitutes it

People often worry because they don’t know how to buy a better value duvet cover. If you are one of these people, then take the time to know the main point to consider before buying a duvet cover: the material that makes it up.

It is important to find out about the material that makes up this product before purchasing, as this conditions the comfort provided by the cover, its resistance and its compatibility with your duvet.

The most known material and which contains all these strong points is cotton and more particularly Egyptian cotton. This material is capable of retaining heat in winter to keep you warm and is breathable in summer to cool you. Egyptian cotton, whether used alone or in combination with another material, remains very resistant and is compatible with any type of duvet. But it is preferable that the cover is made of 100% of this material because its durability is guaranteed in the long term. This is why, it is necessary to check on the packaging of the cover or on its description, if this material is mentioned somewhere.


When asking yourself at some point where to buy a new duvet cover, it is important first of all to find out about the size variants of this product. It is essential to know these size variants to avoid having a cover that is too small or too large for your duvet or bed.

In the case where your bed and duvet are standard, you should pay attention to the elastic and edged covers in order to guarantee a better fit without taking the time to take action. But in case your bed is not standard, you have to be careful and check the size of the cover to compare it with that of the duvet or bed.


To be able to look at the price comparison, it is essential to check the weaving of the duvet cover to ensure your comfort. The weaving of the duvet cover is a guarantee of comfort if you make the right choice at the time of purchase. It can be firm or soft but the important thing is that the product you choose meets your needs.

If you like quilt covers that are easy to hold and have no risk of slipping, then it is better to opt for a firm weaving product. But if you only want a soft and flexible cover even if it is likely to slip, then opt for a soft and more liberated weaving model.

The best duvet covers of 2019

Recommended products

CTI 042753 Frozen Winter

Main advantage

This high quality duvet cover is printed with characters from the famous cartoon “the snow queen”. It will be ideal to plunge your little girl into a sweet and pleasant sleep.

Main drawback

Because it matches the colors of the cartoon, this duvet cover is only available in blue, with no option for other colors.

Verdict: 9.8 / 10

To guarantee your child pleasant nights, this product is perfect given the quality of its finish as well as the decor it brings to the bedroom.

Main Features Explained

Quality material

CTI 042753 Frozen Winter is made from 100% natural and organic cotton. The virtues of this fabric are no longer to be remembered, whether in terms of longevity or comfort. Indeed, this material allows the cover to be used for several years before showing some signs of weakness.

The texture of this material is both soft and supple. The fabric therefore offers the duvet a light and pleasant contact with the skin, which will rock your child overnight. The fibers are ideally spaced to make it as easy as possible to wick away perspiration. Thanks to its breathable texture, you will have the opportunity to enjoy a light and warm blanket on cooler nights.

Pleasant design

Unlike adults who place too much emphasis on quality over aesthetics, children place great importance on this criterion. It is therefore important to address this issue in order to best satisfy your little girl. CTI 042753 Frozen Winter differs from other duvet covers on the market by the designs printed there. We note in particular the two princesses who are among the main characters of the cartoon the snow queen. Your little girl will like it if she enjoyed watching the film, which will easily take her into a wonderful dream.

The colors that make up the cover are bright and rather correct. The features of the characters are perfectly reproduced in order to give even more realism to the decoration of your child’s bedroom. In addition to that, it goes very well in the washing machine and the dryer without the precious colors deteriorating.

Practical use

In order to complete the cover, the manufacturer offers a pillowcase that is in perfect harmony with the rest. It is quite original because it is reversible and therefore offers two different sides to the user. This has both an impact on the design and especially on the magic that her pillow brings to your little girl’s life.

With universal dimensions of 140 x 120 centimeters, this cover adapts very easily to the majority of children’s bed sizes. This will prevent your little girl from being too crowded with this product or having too narrow a blanket.

For hygiene reasons, CTI 042753 Frozen Winter has been specially treated to prevent insects and mites. This can not only harm your child’s health, but also quickly damage the cover.

Catherine Lansfield “Home” City Scape is a duvet cover model made of a mixture of black and white colors, with a contemporary design that will give an urban appearance to your room whatever its decoration. It comes with two pillowcases of the same color and the whole is in perfect harmony to give your room a modern appearance.

The front and back of this model are made of a blend of cotton and polyester material. This guarantees that you are well protected against bacteria or all kinds of allergens that your duvet can contain.

The weaving of this model is tight to ensure its durability over time and to guarantee you a better hygienic condition by remaining impermeable to any type of allergen.

As for its maintenance, it can be washed in a machine at 40 ° C, it dries at a low temperature and it is ironed at a medium temperature.

Regarding the closure system located at the feet, this model has snaps making closing more convenient. This guarantees that you never have to worry about spontaneous opening of this closure.

Because of these characteristics, it should appear at the top of your list of models to compare if in your search for duvet cover 200 × 200 you establish a comparison.

Learn about the features of the Catherine Lansfield “Home” City Scape Duvet Cover before determining where to buy the best duvet cover. In our opinion, it is the best performing of the moment.

Pros A modern duvet cover: The patterns of this duvet cover are really modern and you can really appreciate them if you like industrial decor. Comes with 2 pillowcases: The Catherine Lansfield \ “Home \” City Scape duvet cover comes with 2 pillowcases. Duvet cover ideal for people who suffer from allergies: Thanks to its antiallergenic treatment, you will be able to sleep there peacefully, without having to fear various bacteria. A duvet cover created to last over time: Even after several washes, this cover can keep its colors. Easy maintenance by appointment: You don’t have to take it to the dyer to wash it, it can be washed at 40 ° C. Cons The duvet is removable: It is placed on the bed, it cannot be fixed to the mattress, it disturbs people who move a lot in their sleep.

Specially adapted to a bed size for two people, Douceur d ‘interior So Natural is a very elegant duvet cover model, whether on the front or the back. It is also accompanied by two pillowcases of color in harmony with its face side.

The color of the set is made of a mixture of beige and brown tones both discreet and very sophisticated comparing the design of this model to that of the best duvet cover and more particularly to that of the best duvet cover not expensive market.

It is 220 cm wide and 240 cm long, which is perfectly suited to a duvet for two people.

The material of which it is made is entirely of cotton which is a hygienic material limiting exposure to allergens when you sleep under your duvet. The resistance of this model over time is explained by the fact that the weaving of the material that constitutes it is very tight.

It is soft and light guaranteeing the adaptability of its use to all seasons.

This model is easy to maintain, it can be washed in a machine at 40 ° C and dried by a dryer. On leaving these machines, the cover remains as new.

Which duvet cover to choose if you have an intense need for zen patterns? In our opinion, the So Natural Indoor Softness Duvet Cover could do the trick and is even the cheapest on our list.

Pros A large duvet cover: With this duvet cover, you can sleep comfortably, it is very large. Soft and soothing patterns: The patterns on this duvet cover are very soft and soothing. Entirely cotton: Thanks to its natural cotton fabric, you will be able to draw a line under the problems of allergies. Easy maintenance: This duvet cover passes without problem into the washing machine. Cons The fabric is quite light: The fabric of this duvet cover is quite light and thin, ideal for summer, but inconvenient for winter.

Rapport Jungle Boogie is a very cheerful color children’s bedding set. The cover features a set of jungle animals including elephants, giraffes, zebras, hippos, lions and monkeys.

The dimensions of this model include 200cm in length and 135cm in width which is perfectly suited for a child’s bed.

It comes with a single pillowcase 50cm wide and 75cm long, the color and pattern of which are identical to those of the cover. The whole gives a child’s bedroom a surprising elegance.

This model is made of 50% cotton and 50% polyester, both of which are hygienic materials so that your child always benefits from a healthy condition every time he sleeps.

It is also washed using a washing machine and dried using a dryer to make it easier for you during each interview and to allow your child to always sleep under conditions healthy.

This model is intended to be the only answer to your questions if you are currently wondering which is the best duvet cover on the market or which children’s duvet cover should be purchased.

If you are looking for a duvet cover for your child, you can compare the Rapport Jungle Boogie model to others in its category.

Pros A cheerful duvet cover: Its cheerful patterns are well suited to children, the cover in question is very cheerful. Perfect dimensions for a child’s bed: With its dimensions of 200x135cm, this duvet cover is very suitable for a child’s bed. Made with two fabrics: This duvet cover is made of 50% cotton and 50% polyester, so it can last well over time. Cons The duvet cover is quite thin: This cover is quite thin and because of this, it may not last over time, especially if you wash it often. The pressure closure does not really last over time: By force of washing, the pressure closure may break.

Sleeptime Romance is a very elegant duvet cover model showing on its front side a shade of pink, black and white colors. Its exceptional pattern gives your room a look that is both simple and modern. It is accompanied by two pillowcases in perfect harmony with the cover highlighting any type of decoration of a bedroom.

Regarding its size, its width is equal to 140 cm and its length to 200 cm which is perfectly suited to a bed for two people.

It is mainly made of microfiber which is a light synthetic textile fiber, very fine and very soft to the touch allowing you to enjoy maximum comfort under your duvet and to be protected against possible allergens which may harm your condition. health. Because of this characteristic, this model keeps warm and is very pleasant to the touch.

Ranking & Buying Guide: Top duvet covers The name of this brand

Maintaining this model for use under the best hygienic conditions is simple. Just clean it with a washing machine and dry it with a dryer, both of which are tasks that require minimal effort on your part.

So if at the moment you are wondering how to choose the model that suits you among the best duvet covers of 2019, you have a relevant answer to your question.

Sleeptime Romance is considered the best brand of duvet covers and it is far from being wrong even if this model is not the best of our selection.

Pros Really romantic motif: The motif of this duvet cover is quite special, it would suit lovers. Dimensions designed for a double bed: With these dimensions, this duvet cover is perfectly capable of protecting a duvet for two people. Easy care: The duvet cover can easily be washed in the washing machine. Cons A satin texture: Everyone agrees that this cover is beautiful and yet only a few people appreciate its satin texture. The pillowcases are wide enough: The pillowcases that come with this duvet cover are wide enough, which might displease people who have standard pillows.

If the animated film “The Snow Queen” is one of your daughter’s favorites, why not give her this CTI 042753 pillow comforter in the image of the two princesses and heroines in history. This accessory will surely please your child, it will help him spend fabulous nights.

This duvet is made of 100% cotton and is 140 cm x 120 cm (standardized dimensions). In any point, this duvet should satisfy all of your child’s desires. By choosing this model, you will have no difficulty putting her to bed. This item comes with a reversible pillowcase on delivery.

Since it is made with natural and organic cotton, this duvet can accompany your child for many years. It is also very soft and very light, the evacuation of perspiration through the fibers is optimal. With proper maintenance, this duvet will always offer adequate comfort, regardless of the seasons.

This duvet has other advantages, other than comfort. You could use this quilt as a bed cover or a fitted sheet depending on the child’s needs. Very light, this quilt washes and dries very easily.

You want to offer your child a duvet that will keep him warm on winter nights and cool on summer nights, this CTI-042753 is the item best suited to his expectations. Besides, this duvet only elicits positive comments about it on the comparative sites.

Pros A quilt of excellent quality: Although this quilt is of exemplary quality, it is available at a more than competitive price. The reversible pillowcase: The reversible pillowcase offers a touch of originality to the whole product. The cover of the duvet is innovative: It was developed to fight against mites and insects. Cons The size of the comforter: Standard size, this comforter is not wide enough for large beds, however, the length is right in the standards. A quilt that is difficult to maintain: It is imperative to follow the maintenance instructions to prevent the quilt from creasing too quickly.

When it comes to sleep, choose the best devices that combine both comfort and softness. You then bought yourself a comforter that will make you comfortable in your bed. Indeed, this element is not only used to warm you up, but also offers you great comfort thanks to its softness and lightness. While it might seem like using it should be a breeze, it still turns out to be essential to focus on these next steps.

Defining your size

Determining which size is best is the first step. To do this, you must first know the size of your mattress. For better comfort, it is recommended to choose a duvet size larger than that of the mattress.

Prioritize all-season duvets

You do not know how to choose? Don’t want to buy as many quilts as there are seasons? There are duvets called “four seasons”. These are then made up of 2 duvets, a light one for summer, a thicker one to use in spring or autumn. The two can then be assembled to compose an ideal duvet in winter.

Insert the duvet in its cover

To do this easily, you need a duvet cover, the quilt in question and six clothespins. Start by threading the upper left corner and put two clothespins that pinch the cover and the duvet. Then finish inserting the same side and put pliers in the bottom left corner. Change sides and bring the quilt in the top right and put two clips in the corner.

Finish this field like the previous one and put the last clamp at the bottom right. Finally, take the two corners at the bottom and shake together and the duvet will put itself in the cover.

Always ventilate the duvet

Whether synthetic or natural fibers, the duvet should be shaken and ventilated regularly. It should always be protected by a duvet cover of the same dimensions.

Machine wash

The duvet can be machine washed like all your household linens. However, make sure you have a device capable of handling between 8 and 17 kg of linen. Otherwise, clean it in the laundromat. In addition, you must wash your accessory at a temperature that does not exceed 60 ° C whether synthetic or filled with down. And to prevent the fibers from settling, remember to beat the laundry well by inserting washing balls in your machine.

Ranking & Buying Guide: Top duvet covers Even after

Replace the duvet if necessary

After five or even seven years of good and loyal service, a duvet can age. It is then time to replace it. If, however, most of us are reluctant to throw away our old comforters, it is strongly recommended that they store them in a dry place and preferably in their original packaging.

The most popular brands

Your duvet needs to be protected to keep it in good condition. To do this, it is advisable to acquire a cover. On the other hand, you could be lost among the many models which you will find in the trade. Faced with this, we will help you identify the most reliable brands in the field.

The name of this brand may sound familiar to you if you are used to buying this kind of accessory. Otherwise, know that this is one of the most popular signs on the market. Indeed, the brand prioritizes the quality of its products to meet customer requirements. She has managed to differentiate herself by making constant improvements in the articles she offers to her customers. It is for this reason that buyers prefer Douceur de Interior. This supplier is known for their duvet covers, but that’s not all.

Indeed, it makes available to customers many articles that will facilitate daily life. This manufacturer is generally involved in the creation of bed linens, namely the fitted sheet, the cushion cover, the bed linen and many others. However, he also wanted to expand his activities by designing various accessories. So you can find interior furniture, toilet bags or even kitchen gloves from this brand.

Present on the market since 2012, Lovely Casa is gradually establishing itself in the ready-to-install accessories sector. From its creation, it immediately joined the field of French and international distribution. At that time, the brand asserted its difference and that is what allowed it to gain a good market share. Lovely Casa invented stylish items to meet the needs of a certain category of customers. This brand is very popular with buyers who want to live in an original interior.

In order to strengthen its presence in the trade, Lovely Casa designs two collections each year as well as two others for the mid-season. This is what allows him to procure a wide choice of products which are sold at a very affordable price. In any case, the quality of the articles is always respected by the manufacturer. That said, Lovely Casa offers most of the household linens you need every day. This is the case for duvet covers, various curtains, bedspreads, floor cushions or even chair pads.

This brand specializes in the design of linens that are made to adorn your bedding. Even if he is not the leader in this sector, he has gradually established himself on the market which is invaded by the big brands. This is the reason why Louisiana Bedding is particularly recommended by connoisseurs. This sign is particularly aimed at people who wish to decorate their interior with high quality linens. Indeed, the manufacturer only favors quality and reliable materials to adapt to the expectations of buyers. It is by taking into account the needs of each of its customers that Louisiana Bedding has managed to keep its place among the best suppliers on the market. Besides, it keeps making improvements, whether in terms of quality or design.

To cover the demands of every home, Louisiana Bedding sells products like duvet covers, bed linen, fitted sheets and many others. As a result, customers no longer have to go elsewhere to get the linens they need for their bedding. In addition, the brand has set itself the goal of offering its items at competitive prices in order to be accessible to all portfolios.

Roof Repair, All About Roof Renovation

Roof repair: Prices and subsidies for roof renovation

The repair of a roof is important to maintain the waterproofness of the roof and the sanitation of the building. When renovating a roof, it is important to take into account the insulation of the roof in the works to save energy and have comfort in winter as in summer. If a simple renovation of the roof is insufficient, repair is necessary. Before preparing your budget, which varies depending on the material chosen, find out about the regulations in force and the possible particularities (co-ownership, adjoining houses). Calculate the amount of your aid for the repair of your roofs Learn more about the tax credit for roof repair projects

Bon Plan Calculeo: insulate your attic for € 1!

Thanks to the Pacte Energie Solidarité program, you can insulate your lost roof space for € 1. This program continues to grow and is now considered one of the most effective ecological aids and we strongly recommend it to our users.

Find out more about the Solidarity Energy Pact

Check my eligibility for the Solidarity Energy Pact

Principles of a roof repair

Ensure roof waterproofing

The purpose of renovating the roof is to seal the roof. For this, the roof covering can be removed and changed (tiles, slates …). In cases of major repairs, the frame is to be resumed. It is absolutely necessary to call on a professional carpenter to have a secure site.

When a renovation is not enough

The roof is a critical part in a home: a roof in poor condition allows heat to come out (heat loss) and rain and air to enter (infiltration). These infiltrations are at the origin of the development of plants on the walls, which deteriorates the air quality. With regard to the lack of air tightness, the creation of drafts leads to heat losses and an increase in energy expenditure. The first way to remedy these drawbacks is to renovate the roof by identifying damaged areas, to apply water-repellent treatments and to install an under-roof screen. When the leaks are too great and / or the roof too old, it is necessary to go to repair. Before starting, you must estimate the extent of the damage by going into the attic or the attic. This also makes it possible to check whether the frame has not been affected by infiltration. If this is the case, a specialist must first repair the frame

Applicable regulations and recommendations

During a complete identical repair, unless otherwise provided in the local urban plan (PLU), a prior declaration of work must be made. When the repair results in a so-called minor modification of the exterior appearance of the house (change of the roofing material concerning its color, shape or nature), prior declaration is also necessary. We must also respect the standards related to the chosen material and the municipal PLU. The General Commission for Standardization of the Building in charge of Unified Technical Documents develops the standards (DTU) relating in particular to the roof. These rules concern the shape of the roof, its characteristics, its construction and its aesthetic appearance. The application of the recommendations contained in these DTUs enables quality coverage to be obtained and guarantees to be covered by insurance in the event of a claim.

In co-ownership or joint ownership

According to the rules of the condominium, the work carried out on a given roof may concern all the co-owners or only those whose apartment is in this specific building. When the renovation is part of maintenance work, the simple majority must be obtained at the assembly of co-owners. If it corresponds to improvement works, the majority of 2/3 is required or even unanimously if a loan has been contracted. If the work is undertaken as a matter of urgency, the agreement of the co-owners will be requested at an extraordinary meeting after the start of the repair.

Joint ownership concerns co-ownership on a property separating two adjoining homes. When two buildings side by side have their roofs aligned, it is not a question of joint ownership because the roofs are distinct. Each owner can renovate his roof when he wishes. If two buildings have the same roof and the same frame, we enter in the case of a condominium

Roof repair, all about roof renovation all the co-owners

Roof repair price

To renovate a roof, the overall cost consists of materials and labor. It may be necessary to add the price of the renovation of the frame if it has also been damaged. Among the least expensive materials, we find shingle (from 8 to 15 euros / m2), wood (between 10 and 20 euros / m2 for shingles and around 30 euros / m2 for solid wood) and concrete tiles (between 25 and 30 euros / m2). For more than 30 euros / m2, you can cover your roof with metal (steel, from 30 to 45 euros / m2; zinc, between 45 and 150 euros / m2), polycarbonate (from 30 to 40 euros / m2), terracotta tiles (from 45 to 55 euros / m2) or synthetic slates (from 50 to 75 euros / m2). The most expensive materials are natural slates (from 80 to 150 euros / m2), thatch (between 120 and 150 euros / m2) and photovoltaic tiles (from 900 to 2,000 euros / m2). For a green roof, the more dense and diverse the vegetation, the more it will be expensive: between 120 and 300 euros / m2 for an intensive green roof, from 60 to 120 euros / m2 for the semi-extensive one and between 20 and 60 euros / m2 for the extensive one.

Improve the level of insulation

The increase in the price of energy, in addition to the sealing concerns, makes insulation of the roof essential. Two options are possible:

If you want to have fitted roof spaces, it will be necessary to insulate under crawlers.

. If you want to have lost roof space, it is advisable to insulate the floor from the attic or roof space.

Energy savings thanks to roof insulation

According to ADEME, uninsulated single-family homes represent great potential for energy savings for their owners. The heat losses in a single house are broken down as follows:

25 to 30% of energy lost from the roof. Lost roof spaces, fitted roof spaces, roof terraces are too often little or not insulated.

. Lost roof spaces, fitted roof spaces, roof terraces are too often little or not insulated. 20 to 25% by the walls,

.7 to 10% from the bottom floor

Roof insulation is too often overlooked and insufficient. It is a very simple and fast way to save energy

The additional cost of roof insulation quickly pays for itself

The additional cost of efficient roof insulation is quickly recouped by the energy savings made thereafter. For poorly insulated houses, it only takes 3 to 7 years to make the work profitable.

These works are also encouraged by the State and local communities through numerous subsidies, which can be combined with several ecological aids, the most important of which is the 2017 energy transition tax credit for roof renovation.

Roof repair, all about roof renovation waterproofness of

Aid and subsidies to better insulate your roof

The overall cost of roof repair work is relatively high. As a result, most of the homes tend to postpone this type of work. However, there are several aid schemes such as the Calculeo energy renovation bonus for roof repairs, the green tax credit, Anah aid and subsidies for roof renovation as well as a plethora of subsidies from regional councils. This aid, which can often be combined under certain conditions, can help to drastically reduce the cost price of a roof repair project.

Are you eligible for subsidies for your insulation?

Chapter 1: Record of Employment Information

Is the guide for me?

This guide is for you if:

  • you are an employer and produce your employees’ ROEs;
  • your employees; you work for a small, medium or large business and produce ROEs for it;
  • you are a professional (for example, an accountant, an accounting clerk or a payroll manager) and file ROEs on behalf of your clients.

Notes This guide contains general information on how to complete the ROE. If you are filing ROEs on the web and need technical information, see the ROE help instructions, or call the Employer Service Center at 1-800-367-5693 (TTY: 1-855 -881 to 9874).

If you are producing on the Web and need technical information, see the Web help instructions, or call the Employer Service Center at (: 1-855-881-9874). For the most recent ROE information, see our ROE pages.

What is the Record of Employment?

The ROE is the paper or electronic form that every employer must fill out for each employee who receives insurable earnings, stops working and has an interruption of earnings. The ROE is the most important document in the employment insurance program. Each year, more than one million Canadian employers produce more than nine million ROEs for their employees.

You must complete the ROE even if the employee does not intend to claim Employment Insurance benefits. You indicate the employee’s work history within your organization, including his insurable earnings and his insurable hours.

There are two ways to file ROEs: electronically and on paper.

Chapter 1: Record of Employment Information the end of the

What is the electronic record of employment?

The electronic ROE is sent to Service Canada electronically.

You can send the electronic ROE in three ways:

via ROE Web, using compatible payroll software to send ROEs from a payroll management system;

, using compatible payroll software to send them from a payroll management system; by RE Web, by entering data manually on the Service Canada website; and

, by entering data manually on the Service Canada website; and protected automated transfer (APR), a batch transfer method used by payroll service providers.

There are two types of electronic ROE, Web RO or TAP ROE. Depending on the type, the serial number begins with one of the following letters:

W – RE Web

Web S – RE TAP

ROE Web is an efficient, reliable, secure and easy-to-use tool that allows you to create, send, modify ROEs on the Web and print them. It also allows you to harmonize the production of ROEs with your pay cycle.

For more information on ROE Web, visit the Service Canada website, or call the Employer Service Center at 1-800-367-5693 (TTY: 1-855-881-9874).

What is a paper employment record?

The paper ROE is a one page form in three copies; the first constitutes the original, while the second and third are certified copies.

When you have completed the paper ROE, you must distribute the three copies as follows:

give copy 1 to the employee who will use it to apply for EI benefits (this is the copy the employee will use to apply for EI benefits);

send copy 2 (blue) to Service Canada (see Where should I send copy 2 of the paper ROE?);

keep copy 3 for your records.

There are different types of paper ROEs. Depending on the type, the serial number begins with one of the following letters:

A – RE in English or French (this series is sold out; these REs can therefore no longer be ordered, but they are still valid)

in English or French (this series is sold out; these can no longer be ordered, but they are still valid) E – RE in English

in English K – RE in French

in French L – RE laser (this production mode is no longer used; it has been replaced by RE Web)

laser (this production method is no longer used; it has been replaced by Web) Z – Fishermen’s REs (the procedure for filling out this type of REs is not the same as for other REs; to find out more, see Procedure to complete the record of employment for self-employed fishermen)

What does Service Canada do with the ROE information?

We use the information in the ROE to determine whether a person who is experiencing a loss of earnings is eligible for EI benefits, as well as to determine the amount and duration of EI benefits. We also use the ROE to ensure that no one misuses or receives Employment Insurance benefits in error.

For residents of Quebec, we share the information on the ROE with the government of that province, which administers the maternity, paternity, parental and adoption benefits paid to residents of Quebec under the Quebec Plan parental insurance.

This is why it is very important to ensure that the information you provide on the ROE is accurate.

What is meant by “insurable earnings” and “insurable hours”?

By insurable earnings, we mean most of the types of earnings you pay to your employees from which EI premiums are deducted. Insurable hours are the hours for which employees have received insurable earnings. Service Canada determines what pay period insurable earnings are to be allocated to the ROE, but the Canada Revenue Agency determines what types of earnings and hours are insurable. For more information, see Appendix 1 on Types of insurable earnings and hours, or the Canada Revenue Agency.

What happens when earnings and hours are not insurable?

In some cases, compensation and hours are not insurable. Employment is not insurable, for example, when the employee does not deal at arm’s length with the employer or when the employee holds more than 40% of the voting shares of the company which employs him.

You should only produce a record of employment for employees whose wages and hours are insurable. If you have any doubts about the insurability of an employee’s compensation and hours, contact the Canada Revenue Agency for a decision on insurability. See the section called “Do you want information on insurability?” To find out how to contact the Canada Revenue Agency.

What is an interruption of earnings?

There is an interruption of earnings in the following situations:

when the employee has been or plans to be without work and has not received or does not expect to receive any insurable earnings from his employer for seven consecutive calendar days, there is an interruption of earnings. This situation is known as the seven-day rule. This applies, for example, when employees leave their jobs, are laid off or are laid off (see exceptions in the table below). When the seven-day rule applies, the first day of interruption of earnings is considered to be the last paid day (for more information, see box 11 – Last paid day).

, there is interruption of earnings. This situation is designated by the name of. This applies, for example, when employees leave their jobs, are laid off or are laid off (see exceptions in the table below). When the seven-day rule applies, the first day of interruption of earnings is considered to be the last paid day (for more information, see box 11 – Last paid day). when the employee earns less than 60% of their normal weekly earnings because they are sick, injured or quarantined, caring for or supporting their seriously ill child or family member or because that he is caring for a newborn baby, that he has adopted a child or, if it is an employee, because she is pregnant or because she has given birth to a child, there is an interruption of earnings. In such a case, the first day of interruption of earnings is the Sunday of the week in which he earns less than 60% of his normal weekly earnings.

Example Julio usually works 40 hours a week and earns an insurable gross salary of $ 1,000. Because he is sick, he can only work 16 hours a week and now earns $ 400 a week, which is 40% of his normal weekly earnings. In this case, the first week he earns $ 400 is when there is a break in earnings, and Sunday of that week is the first day of Julio’s stop pay.

When the employee begins to receive payments from a disability insurance plan, there is an interruption of earnings. For more information, see the table on how to complete box 19.

Exceptions to the seven-day rule

The seven-day rule does not apply in the following cases:

Real estate agents: There is an interruption of earnings only when a real estate agent renounces his license or when it is suspended or revoked, unless the agent stops working because he is sick, injured, quarantined, provides care or support to a seriously ill child or family member, cares for a newborn, adopted a child or, if it is an agent, because she is pregnant or has given birth to a child. In other words, if the agent stops working for any other reason, for example because he is on authorized leave or on vacation, there is no interruption of earnings as long as the contract is valid. For more information on how to complete the RE for real estate agents, see the “Real estate agents” section.

Employees with unconventional work schedules (also known as layoff days): Some employers agree with their employees on work schedules that provide for alternating work and vacation periods. Some employees, such as firefighters, health care workers and factory workers, sometimes have unconventional work schedules. When these types of employees do not work for seven or more consecutive days, there is no interruption of earnings.

If the employee has been dismissed and is entitled to leave under an employment agreement entered into to compensate for the overtime (time) worked during an established work schedule, indicate in box 18 of the ROE the period of leave during which the employee has rights as well as their work regime.


A firefighter works for 4 consecutive days, 24 hours a day (which corresponds to 96 insurable hours), then he is on leave for 10 consecutive days. In this case, even if the firefighter does not work for more than 7 consecutive days, he is still considered to be employed during the 10-day leave period. As a result, there is no interruption of earnings.

A minor works for 14 consecutive days, 12 hours a day (which corresponds to 168 insurable hours), then he is on leave for 7 consecutive days. In this case, even if the minor does not work for 7 consecutive days, he is still considered to be employed during the seven-day leave period. As a result, there is no interruption of earnings.

Commission sellers: For sellers mainly paid on commission, there is an interruption of earnings only when the employment contract ends, unless the seller stops working because he is sick, injured, quarantined, offers caring for or supporting a child or a seriously ill family member, caring for a newborn baby, adopted child or, if it is a seller, because she is pregnant or has given birth to a child. In other words, if the seller stops working for any other reason, for example because he is on authorized leave or on vacation, there is no interruption of earnings as long as the contract is valid. For more information on how to complete the ROE for commission sellers, see the “Commission Sellers” section.

When should I file a record of employment?

Whether or not the employee intends to apply for EI benefits, you must file an ROE when any of the following situations arise:

each time an employee in insurable employment experiences an interruption of earnings; or

when requested by Service Canada.

Notes You must file an ROE only in the circumstances provided by Service Canada.

only in circumstances provided by Service Canada. When an employer has to lay off a large number of employees, in the case of a plant closure, for example, he can call on Service Canada to advise on the production of ROEs. For more information, call the Employer Service Center at 1-800-367-5693 (TTY: 1-855-881-9874)

Special situations justifying the production of a record of employment

When Service Canada requests it: Most often, we ask you to file an ROE when the employee occupies two jobs and he / she experiences a stop in earnings related to one or the other of these jobs. In this case, if the employee applies for EI benefits, we need an ROE from the other employer, even if the employee is still working for him. We use the information from the two ROEs to calculate the amount of EI benefits for this employee and the number of weeks he could receive them.

When the type of pay period changes: When your business or organization changes the type of pay period, you must file an ROE for all employees, even if they do not suffer any interruption of earnings. For more information, see the note in the “Box 6 – Type of pay period” section.

When an employee, without changing employer, is transferred to another Canada Revenue Agency payroll account number: When an employer has more than one payroll account number (for more details, see box 5 – CRA business number) and that the employee’s payroll file is transferred to another payroll account number within the organization, he does not have to file an ROE if the following conditions are met:

there was no actual interruption in the payment of the employee’s remuneration during the transition period; and

the employer agrees to file a single ROE covering the two periods of employment, if applicable.

Note If the change in payroll account number implies a change in the type of pay period, you must file an ROE for the employee.

When a business changes ownership: When a business changes ownership, the former employer generally has to file an ROE for all employees. However, if the following two conditions apply, you do not have to file an ROE:

there was no actual interruption in the payment of the employee’s remuneration during the transition period; and

had an actual interruption in the payment of the employee’s remuneration during the transition period; the new employer keeps the payroll records of the old employer and agrees to file a single ROE for the two periods of employment, if applicable.

Note If the change in ownership requires a change in the type of pay period, you must file an ROE for all employees.

When an employer declares bankruptcy: If an employer declares bankruptcy and a trustee takes over the management of the business, the employer must generally produce an ROE for all employees. However, if the following two conditions apply, you do not have to file an ROE:

there was no actual interruption in the payment of the employee’s remuneration during the transition period; and

actual interruption in the payment of the employee’s remuneration during the transition period; the trustee keeps the employer’s pay files and agrees to file a single ROE for the two periods of employment, if applicable.

Note If the employee continues to work during the post-bankruptcy period, his earnings will be stopped only when he stops working, even if he has received no remuneration.

For a part-time, on-call or casual employee: You do not have to file ROEs each time a part-time, on-call or casual employee experiences a seven-day pay interruption or more. However, you must file an ROE in the following cases:

the employee requests an ROE and there has been an interruption of earnings;

and there was an interruption of earnings; the employee no longer works for you;

Service Canada requests an ROE; or

; the employee did no work for thirty days and received no insurable earnings for this period.

When the employee receives benefits under a salary insurance plan: When you offer your employees a salary insurance plan, you must produce an ROE:

if the indemnities are not insurable, as soon as there is an interruption of earnings; or

, as soon as there is interruption of earnings; if the benefits are insurable, as soon as your earnings stop, but you must file a second ROE thereafter, when the benefit payments end, for the period covered by the salary insurance plan.

During a period of self-funded leave: In certain workplaces, the employee may conclude a self-funded leave agreement with his employer. Under an agreement of this type, the employee spreads out part of his salary in order to finance a later period of leave. For example, the employee can work for four years, and defer 20% of the salary received during these four years to finance the leave he will take in the fifth year. During the period of self-funded leave, there is no interruption of earnings; therefore, you do not need to file an ROE, unless one of the parties terminates the agreement; in this case, you must produce one. You must file an ROE if either party terminates the agreement during the period of self-funded leave and the employee is not scheduled to return to work. You must then indicate in box 11, the date of the last day worked by the employee before the start of the self-funded leave.

Note Contact the Canada Revenue Agency for information on how to deduct EI premiums from earnings paid during the averaging period and self-funded leave.

Note If you use a pay service provider (FSP): you do not have to issue ROEs if you change your FSP. That said, if you wish to do so and your new FSP is unable to issue ROEs for the period of employment covered by your previous FSP, the latter can issue them until the new FSP takes relay.

How long do I have to file a record of employment?

Paper employment record

If you file a paper ROE, you must file it within five calendar days:

following the first day of interruption of earnings; or

following the day the employer is informed of the interruption of earnings.

Note If you file a paper ROE, you must give copy 1 (the original) to your employee. Also inform the employee that he must return it to Service Canada if he applies for employment insurance benefits. Your employee can send the originals by mail or drop them off at a Service Canada Center. Your employee will find the address to post them on the “Confirmation and Information” page after submitting their application for Employment Insurance benefits online.

Electronic record of employment

If you file an electronic ROE and your pay period is “weekly”, “fortnight” (every two weeks) or “biweekly” (twice a month, usually the fifteenth day and the last day of the month), you have up to five calendar days after the end of the pay period when the employee’s earnings were stopped to produce it.

If your pay period is of the type “monthly” or “13 pay periods per year” (every four weeks), you must file the electronic ROE before the earlier of the following two dates:

five calendar days after the end of the pay period during which the employee’s earnings were stopped; or

during which the employee’s earnings were stopped; fifteen calendar days after the first day of interruption of earnings.

Note If you file an electronic ROE, you do not have to give your employee a hard copy. For more information, see the section “Do I still need to give the employee a copy of the electronic record of employment?” ”

The deadline for filing an electronic ROE depends on the type of pay period and the day the interruption of earnings occurs.

Examples of deadlines for filing an electronic ROE

Type of pay period Example Weekly If your pay period is of the “weekly” type, you have five calendar days after the end of the pay period during which there was interruption of earnings to send the electronic ROE to Service Canada . Martin stops working on March 1, 2010, which is the first day of the interruption of earnings. Your “weekly” pay period extends from February 27, 2010 to March 5, 2010. Since the pay period during which there is interruption of earnings ends on March 5, 2010, you have up to ” to March 10, 2010 to produce Martin’s ROE. Fortnight If your pay period is of the “fortnight” type, you have five calendar days after the end of the pay period during which there was interruption of earnings to send the electronic ROE to Service Canada. Ginette stops working on March 1, 2010, which is the first day of the interruption of earnings. Your pay period, which is of “fortnight” type, extends from February 27, 2010 to March 12, 2010. Since the pay period during which there is interruption of earnings ends on March 12, 2010, you have up to ” on March 17, 2010 to produce Ginette’s RE. Biweekly If your pay period is “biweekly”, you have five calendar days after the end of the pay period during which there was interruption of earnings to send the electronic ROE to Service Canada. Safina stops working on March 1, 2010, which is the first day of the interruption of earnings. Your pay period, which is “biweekly”, extends from March 1, 2010 to March 15, 2010. Since the pay period during which there is interruption of earnings ends on March 15, 2010, you have up to ” to March 20, 2010 to produce the Safina ROE. Monthly If your pay period is of the “monthly” type, you must send the electronic ROE to Service Canada before the earlier of the following two dates: five calendar days after the end of the pay period during which the pay stoppage occurred employee compensation; or

fifteen calendar days after the first day of interruption of earnings. Example 1 Peter stops working on March 1, 2010, which is the first day of the interruption of earnings. Your pay period, which is of the “monthly” type, extends from March 1, 2010 to March 31, 2010. You must file the ROE before the earlier of the following two dates: five calendar days after the end of the pay period during which his earnings were stopped (April 5, 2010); or

fifteen calendar days after the first day of interruption of earnings (March 16, 2010). In this case, you have until March 16, 2010 to file Peter’s ROE, because it is the closer of the two dates. Example 2 Martha stops working on March 30, 2010, which is the first day of the interruption of earnings. Your pay period, which is of the “monthly” type, extends from March 1, 2010 to March 31, 2010. You must file the ROE before the earlier of the following two dates: five calendar days after the end of the pay period during which his earnings were stopped (April 5, 2010); or

fifteen calendar days after the first day of interruption of earnings (April 14, 2010). In this case, you have until April 5, 2010 to file Martha’s ROE, because it is the closer of the two dates. Thirteen pay periods per year (every four weeks) If your pay period is like “13 pay periods per year” (that is, you pay your employees every four weeks), you must file the electronic ROE before the earlier of the following two dates: five calendar days after the end of the pay period during which the employee’s earnings were stopped; or

fifteen calendar days after the first day of interruption of earnings. Example 1 Roberto stops working on March 1, 2010, which is the first day of interruption of earnings. Your pay period, which is like “13 pay periods a year”, ends on the fourth Sunday. The pay period during which there was interruption of earnings extends from March 1, 2010 to March 28, 2010. You must file the ROE before the earlier of the following two dates: five calendar days after the end of the period pay during which his earnings were stopped (April 2, 2010); or

fifteen calendar days after the first day of interruption of earnings (March 16, 2010). In this case, you have until March 16, 2010 to file Roberto’s ROE, because it is the closer of the two dates. Example 2 Juliette stops working on March 23, 2010, which is the first day of interruption of earnings. Your pay period extends from March 1, 2010 to March 28, 2010. You must file the ROE before the earlier of the following two dates: five calendar days after the end of the pay period during which the employee stopped working compensation (April 2, 2010); or

fifteen calendar days after the first day of interruption of earnings (April 7, 2010). In this case, you have until April 2, 2010 to file Juliette’s ROE, because it is the closer of the two dates.

Do I still need to give the employee a copy of the electronic ROE?

No. If you are sending your employee’s ROE electronically, you do not need to print a hard copy. When you send the ROE electronically, the data is sent directly to Service Canada systems. We then use this data to process claims for EI benefits.

Notes Make sure that the employee knows that you are going to send his ROE to Service Canada electronically, and that in this case, he must not send a copy to Service Canada.

to Service Canada electronically, and in this case, send a copy to Service Canada. If the employee is registered with the My Service Canada Account online tool, he can use it to view and print copies of his electronic record of employment. To learn more about this tool, he should consult My Service Canada Account.

Even if you are no longer required to print a paper copy of the ROE when you send it electronically, you should, as a courtesy, provide a copy to your employee if they request it. However, you must remind him that he should not send this copy to Service Canada.

when you send it electronically, you should, as a courtesy, provide a copy to your employee if they request it. However, you must remind him that he must send this copy to Service Canada. If your employee wants to apply for employment insurance benefits, remind him that he must submit his claim as soon as possible after the interruption of earnings, even if ” he did not receive all of his ROEs (more specifically, those produced on paper).

For more information on how to send ROEs electronically, see The ROE on the Web, or call the Employer Service Center at 1-800-367-5693 (TTY: 1-855-881- 9874).

How long do I have to keep payroll records related to ROEs?

Whether you file paper or electronic ROEs, you must keep all related payroll records for six years after the year to which the data relate, either on paper or in electronic format.

Do I have to keep paper copies of the record of employment?

If you file a paper ROE, you must keep copy 3 for six years after the year to which the data relate. Make sure to keep it in a safe place. Once you have completed an ROE, the information it contains is considered confidential.

Si vous produisez un RE électronique, vous n’avez pas à conserver de copie papier, mais vous devez garder les données pendant les six années suivant l’année à laquelle elles se rapportent.

Où dois-je envoyer la copie 2 du relevé d’emploi papier?

Vous devez envoyer la copie 2 (bleue) du RE papier dûment rempli au centre des RE de Service Canada à Bathurst (Nouveau-Brunswick), à l’adresse suivante :

Service Canada

C.P. 9000

Bathurst (Nouveau-Brunswick) E2A 4T3

Le centre des RE de Bathurst ne s’occupe d’aucune autre tâche liée au RE ou à l’assurance-emploi. Vous devez donc envoyer uniquement la copie 2 du RE à l’adresse indiquée ci-dessus. Toute la correspondance et tous les autres documents liés au RE doivent être acheminés au Centre Service Canada de votre localité.

Remarque Si vous produisez un RE électronique, n’envoyez pas de copie papier à Service Canada.

Où dois-je envoyer la correspondance et tous les autres documents liés au relevé d’emploi?

Vous devez acheminer la correspondance et tous les autres documents liés au RE au Centre Service Canada de votre localité. La copie 2 (bleue) du RE est le seul document que vous devez envoyer au centre des RE de Bathurst (Nouveau-Brunswick).

Est-ce que je peux apporter des changements à un relevé d’emploi papier après l’avoir rempli?

Oui, mais seulement si vous avez encore en votre possession les trois copies. Dans ce cas, vous pourrez le corriger en procédant comme suit :

barrez d’abord l’information incorrecte d’un trait;

inscrivez ensuite les bons renseignements; et

apposez vos initiales à côté de chaque changement.

Remarque N’utilisez jamais de liquide ou de ruban correcteur.

Si vous avez déjà distribué des copies du RE papier, vous ne pourrez pas le modifier. Dans ce cas, vous devrez produire un RE modifié. Voir « Dans quelles circonstances dois-je modifier un relevé d’emploi? » pour savoir comment procéder.

Est-ce que je peux annuler un relevé d’emploi?

Non. Vous ne pouvez pas annuler un RE que vous avez déjà produit. Si vous avez produit un RE par erreur, vous devez produire un RE modifié. Consultez la section suivante pour savoir comment procéder.

Dans quelles circonstances dois-je modifier un relevé d’emploi?

Vous devez modifier un RE dans les circonstances suivantes :

Vous devez corriger, mettre à jour ou modifier l’information que vous avez déjà inscrite sur un RE . Exemple

Après que vous avez produit le RE initial, le départ de votre employé passe de provisoire à définitif et cet employé n’a pas travaillé depuis que vous avez produit le RE initial. Parce que le départ de l’employé est maintenant définitif, vous devez lui verser une autre somme lors de sa cessation d’emploi, soit une paie de vacances. Dans ce cas-ci, vous devez produire un RE modifié qui inclura cette information. Par contre, si vous n’avez aucun nouveau renseignement à fournir, vous n’avez pas besoin de produire de RE modifié. Remarque Si un de vos employés en congé a reçu un RE et qu’il vous avise qu’il ne reviendra pas au travail, vous n’êtes pas tenu de produire un RE modifié, puisqu’il s’agit d’une séparation permanente. Cela dit, si vous versez des prestations supplémentaires à l’employé, dans ce cas, vous devez produire un RE modifié.

. Vous avez transmis un RE à Service Canada par erreur. Lorsque vous remplissez le RE modifié, indiquez « Le précédent RE a été produit par erreur » à la case 18, Observations.

à Service Canada par erreur. Lorsque vous remplissez le modifié, indiquez « Le précédent a été produit par erreur » à la case 18, Observations. Service Canada vous demande de le faire.

Remarque Lorsque vous produisez un RE modifié, vous devez remplir toutes les cases du RE, et non pas seulement celles où les renseignements diffèrent de ceux du RE initial.

Que dois-je faire pour modifier un relevé d’emploi électronique?

Pour plus de renseignements sur la façon de produire un relevé d’emploi électronique :

Si vous utilisez RE Web, consultez les instructions d’aide de RE Web, ou appelez le Centre de services aux employeurs au 1-800-367-5693 ( ATS : 1-855-881-9874).

Web, consultez les instructions d’aide de Web, ou appelez le Centre de services aux employeurs au ( : 1-855-881-9874). Si vous utilisez RE TAP, communiquez avec votre fournisseur de services de paie.

Remarque Si vous modifiez un RE papier par voie électronique, inscrivez « Modification d’un RE papier » à la case 18, Observations. Inscrivez aussi le numéro de série du RE papier initial.

Que dois-je faire pour modifier un relevé d’emploi papier?

Pour modifier un RE papier :

utilisez un RE vierge;

vierge; à la case 2, inscrivez le numéro de série du RE initial que vous modifiez;

initial que vous modifiez; assurez-vous de remplir toutes les cases, même lorsque l’information est la même que celle que vous avez inscrite sur le RE initial;

initial; corrigez toute information qui était erronée sur le RE initial.

Remarque Lorsque vous produisez un RE papier modifié, il n’est pas nécessaire d’ajouter d’observations à la case 18 pour indiquer qu’il s’agit d’un RE modifié.

Que dois-je faire des relevés d’emploi papier annulés ou excédentaires?

Si vous avez des RE papier annulés (par exemple des RE qui contenaient des erreurs), vous pouvez les détruire. Avant de les détruire, assurez-vous de prendre en note leurs numéros de série et conservez-les avec vos dossiers de paie.

Si vous avez des RE excédentaires, communiquez avec le Centre de services aux employeurs, au 1-800-367-5693 ( ATS : 1-855-881-9874). Les agents vous donneront des directives sur la façon de les retourner.

Comment puis-je commander des relevés d’emploi papier?

Pour commander des RE papier, communiquez avec le Centre de services aux employeurs au 1-800-367-5693 ( ATS : 1-855-881-9874). Lorsque vous passerez votre commande, ayez en main votre numéro de compte de retenues sur la paie de l’Agence du revenu du Canada aux fins d’identification.

À qui dois-je m’adresser si j’ai besoin de plus d’information?

Tips to Choose a Proper Fire Damage Restoration Company

Introduction No establishment is immune to the risk of fire. Unlike other agents of deterioration covered in this text, fire can cause serious and sometimes irreparable damage to the building and the collections therein, as well as major interruptions to the activities taking place there and to services offered there. It can also cause injury, and even death, in people. It is therefore important to give the highest possible priority to fire prevention and fire fighting. Likewise, every effort should be made to limit the risk of a fire occurring and to minimize its impact. If the cost of such efforts may seem prohibitive, the cost of inaction may be even more! Since matters relating to the security of persons fall within the competence of government authorities, they will not be dealt with in this section. Rather, it will examine fire safety and fire protection with a view to preserving and protecting cultural property, in particular collections. Although many museums can meet basic security requirements, these requirements are too often inadequate for the protection of cultural property.

Brief description of fire: the principles of combustion Fire comes from combustion, a phenomenon resulting from a chemical reaction which, in order to be able to arise and develop, requires the presence of three elements joined together in an appropriate combination: a source of combustible (any material that can burn), oxygen (a component of air) and a source of ignition, such as heat or a spark. This dynamic is often called the “fire triangle”, as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. Fire triangle In order to extinguish a fire, you usually have to deprive the fire of at least one of these elements. The following text briefly describes the various stages of the fire. Main stages of fire development Pre-ignition stage At the start, the fire remains of a limited extent and can be easily extinguished by first using a portable extinguisher. Its presence may not be detected until the flames are visible or there is heat. When there is enough heat near the ceiling, the sprinklers go off and manage to control, even extinguish, the fire. If there is no automatic fire extinguishing system, the fire can spread freely, which can lead to the next stage. Burning stage The heat becomes intense and high enough to ignite common combustible materials in the room, causing a blaze. This can happen only a few minutes after the start of the general pre-ignition stage when the appropriate conditions are met. Post-ignition stage Brazing, where all combustible materials exposed in the room fuel the fire. This can cause the total loss of collections in this room, and the entire building is threatened. The flames can spread to other rooms through the corridors and voids in the ceiling. Once all the fuel has been consumed, the fire gradually goes out. Since a fire can develop and spread quickly, it is important to detect and extinguish it at its earliest stage to reduce the risk of serious damage, bodily injury and loss of life.

Sources of ignition While museums and related establishments are vulnerable to fire from several different sources, both inside and outside the building, most of the fires that arise there are caused by negligence and d ‘lack of diligence on the part of human beings, or else are switched on intentionally. Some of the most common sources of ignition include: outdoor and natural sources, such as lightning and proximity to forest, bush, or grassland fires, exposure to adjacent burning buildings or garbage containers in flames, etc .;

electrical sources, such as wiring, electrical panels, electrical equipment and appliances, and HVAC (heating / ventilation / air conditioning) systems, defective or overloaded;

proximity of combustible materials to a heat source, such as a portable heater;

open flame sources, such as candles and stoves used in restaurants and receptions;

fires at events or interpretive activities, bursting from fireplaces, cooking stoves, candles, blacksmith workshops, etc .;

construction and renovation activities, such as high temperature work (i.e. welding, pickling, cutting, etc.); use of pouring materials which produce heat, etc .;

welding, pickling, cutting, etc.); use of pouring materials which produce heat, etc .; improper use, disposal and / or storage of flammable liquids such as paint thinners;

smoking equipment;

gas leaks (Figure 2); and

arson. Figure 2. The fire in this museum was caused by a gas leak. Among the above sources, the risk from electrical sources, arson and construction or renovation works tends to be most common in cultural establishments. Figure 3. The defective wire seen here comes from the power cable of a laboratory oven. The building’s electrical distribution system must be inspected by an electrician at least every 10 years, the heating systems must be serviced once (1) once a year and tools, equipment and appliances of all sizes must be inspected regularly, to reduce the risk of electric fire. Although, usually, collections such as cellulose nitrate films, weapons, ammunition, blasting equipment, flammable liquids (so-called wet collections), etc. are not themselves the source of the fires, they nevertheless contribute to the building’s fuel load (fire load) and greatly increase the threat from the point of view of firefighters. Places of worship are particularly vulnerable to arson because they are often relatively isolated and open to the public, and have large open spaces and concealed voids that allow fire to spread quickly. Heritage structures that remain unoccupied or uncrowded are also very vulnerable. Seasonal museums can also be vulnerable to fire. Since many of these museums in small communities do not have HVAC systems, space heaters, portable heaters and even wood stoves are sometimes used in the spring and fall to better control the humidity and provide heat to staff working in these buildings. In addition, many of these small museums are located in remote locations, where acts of vandalism and arson can go unnoticed for some time, especially in the off-season. These museums are often constructed of highly combustible materials, are not protected by monitored detection and automatic extinguishing systems, and in some cases cannot access a reliable source of water. Some establishments are protected by battery powered smoke detectors. However, it is important to test and clean these devices regularly, and to replace their batteries. Although these alarm systems may be sufficient for the safety of persons when the building is occupied, outside of opening hours, however, the intervention of the local fire department could be considerably delayed. Heritage houses serving as museums are particularly vulnerable to rapid fire developments, and their rehabilitation as such may be more problematic. Their vulnerability can be attributed to a number of causes: These buildings can be constructed of highly combustible materials which favor the propagation of the flame, since they have dried over time.

They may include old, inadequate and dangerous electrical wiring and heating systems.

Many of these buildings are designed with large open staircases that allow flames and smoke to spread quickly from one floor to another.

There may be voids concealed above ceilings, under floors and behind walls.

The basements and attics of many such buildings are not compartmentalized.

The openings on the perimeter of the ducts, electrical pipes, plumbing pipes, etc., during installation or removal, may not have been fitted with a barrier made of a resistant material the propagation of the flame at the points where these penetrations cross floors, ceilings and walls.

Cleaning accessories, solvents, paints, waxes, etc. are often improperly stored in the basement or in a closet with no fire rating. The fuel load attributable to the contents of the house and its finishes can be high, and the operating mode of the installation can create additional fire risks. For example, include the use of fireplaces or wood stoves to heat the museum or for interpretive purposes such as cooking, baking or otherwise. In addition, the museum can be rented for filming purposes, or used for special dinners and meetings where open flame sources such as candles are allowed. Despite these risks, many museums do not have a monitored fire detection or automatic fire extinguishing system. However, before making changes to the structure in order to make it safer, or installing or improving fire protection systems, it may be necessary to consult a heritage architect used to implementing these types of projects in the recognition and respect of the heritage fabric and the original design of the structure. However, whether a museum-type facility is of a heritage nature or of modern construction and suitable for these purposes, it is important to have a thorough knowledge of the building and the systems it contains and to adequately maintain it. . Unfortunately, it is too often neglected to invest the money and man hours required for fire prevention and the protection and maintenance of buildings for other programs and activities. By making fire safety a priority, steps can be taken to protect staff, visitors, collections, the building (s), and services. Depending on the extent of the damage, restoring and reopening a facility after a fire can take many years or even require the construction of a new building. Some museums can never reopen.

Impact of fires on collections Depending on the type, extent and severity of the fire, as well as the vulnerability of the collector’s items to heat and smoke, damage to collections ranges from slight coloring to total loss. Collectors in the central fire of a burning fire can catch fire and burn, completely or not. Even collectors’ items located elsewhere, for example, in another room, can deform, change color or become brittle, or even be covered with a deposit of soot, as in Figure 4. Figure 4. The pieces of collection inside this display case were adequately protected from damage caused by soot. Soot and hot gases do not necessarily cause total loss, but they can cause widespread and irreparable damage (Figure 5). Figure 5. Even if the top pages of this open book were damaged, the rest remained relatively intact. Organic materials from plant or animal products, such as paper, textiles and wood, are highly combustible, especially if they are very dry. In general, the thinner the item, the more likely it will catch fire and burn completely. For example, a loose sheet of paper catches fire and burns quickly, while books tucked tightly on a shelf may remain relatively free of damage, except on the back (Figures 6 and 7) and, perhaps, soot deposits or a color change on the upper edge.

Figures 6 and 7. The miniature sheets made up of these books remained intact; however, their covers have been seriously damaged and will need to be replaced. Although collectibles made from inorganic materials such as stone, glass, metal and ceramics are not likely to catch fire, they can still suffer significant damage: melting, warping, tarnishing, embrittlement, cracking, or even broken into pieces. In addition to heat damage, collectibles can also be severely damaged by smoke and soot. Smoke is the product of combustion and is generally made up of fine particles and hot gases. Soot designates carbon in fine particles which is deposited by the flames resulting from incomplete combustion of organic substances. Both smoke and soot are harmful to cultural property. Figure 8. The top surface of this cabinet is covered with a large deposit of soot. Soot deposits, like the top of the cabinet in Figure 8, are usually powdery, resemble ash, and can tarnish or even obliterate images and details of affected surfaces. If you handle material that has been covered with soot, the soot may be more impregnated into the surfaces. Organic materials with porous or highly textured surfaces are especially vulnerable to this process and can be extremely difficult to clean. Therefore, as much as possible, you should avoid handling collectibles that have been damaged by soot. Observations of curators with experience in recovering and cleaning objects damaged by soot, the more time passes, the more it tends to become difficult to remove. It should therefore be removed as soon as possible following the directions of a seasoned curator. Soot from a fire involving synthetic materials tends to be more oily in nature and more difficult to remove than powdery soot.

Reducing the Risk of Fire Most museums can contain considerable combustible charges that can fuel a fire. This is particularly the case for many heritage houses that function as museums, have a wood frame construction and include period pieces filled with combustible interior objects and finishes. Archival chambers and facilities that are equipped with mobile (compact) storage systems usually also contain high fuel loads. Certain collections may in themselves represent an additional risk. When a fire breaks out, cellulose nitrate films, natural history collections whose parts are kept in alcohol, as well as explosive materials, such as ammunition and certain mining equipment, can be everything particularly dangerous for the firefighters who intervene. Whenever possible, these items should be made safe and the changes made to them, documented, and procedures should be established and followed for their safe handling, storage and display. In the case of hazardous areas such as chemical supply premises or areas containing hazardous collections, post warning signs to alert personnel as well as the fire department of the presence of any source of danger. Certain situations that may increase the risk of serious damage to a museum are unavoidable, for example, the combustible construction of a heritage frame house-museum is made of wood, or the creation of a museum in a remote location, where the water supply may not be reliable, or where the response time of the local fire department may prove to be much longer than in a larger metropolitan area. However, measures can still be taken to reduce the risk and severity of fires: creation and implementation of fire prevention and response policies, plans and instructions; implementation of safe fire safety practices; and improvements to the installation. Table 1 identifies some ways to mitigate the risk of fire, or to minimize the impact. The measures to be applied will vary from one establishment to another due to their different resources and needs and also depending on the availability of expertise. Not all of these measures will necessarily apply to you; this list is not intended to be exhaustive. Certain strategies to reduce the risk of fire and damage caused by fires. General (all risks): Develop and implement a fire protection program that covers prevention, rehabilitation of buildings, fire intervention instructions, fire protection systems and devices, and finally staff training.

Establish a fire prevention committee made up of both management and response personnel. Hold regular meetings to discuss fire safety issues.

Develop and apply fire safety policies, procedures and procedures to create a safe environment for both people and objects. For example: implementation of a no smoking policy, elimination of clutter and residue; ban on the use of open flames and temporary wiring; prohibition of the use of material producing heat near combustible materials; etc.

Train staff on fire prevention, evacuation and the use of portable fire extinguishers.

Undertake a risk assessment to identify and prioritize fire threats, as well as measures to reduce them.

Undertake regular inspections and eliminate any identified risks. Use an inspection checklist to make sure nothing has been left out.

Develop good relationships with the local fire department. Invite all watch crews to visit the museum to allow them to familiarize themselves with its construction, layout, content and any hazardous areas such as chemical storage areas, spray paint booths or areas containing dangerous collections.

Discuss your concerns about water damage, and let the fire department know what is most important between the building itself and its contents. Ask for recommendations to make your museum safer / better protected as well as information on fire prevention. Conduct fire drills annually.

Invite a crime prevention officer, or other law enforcement official, to come visit your museum to make recommendations on what you can do to keep it safer.

If there is planning for a new installation or a rehabilitation of the existing installation, choose non-combustible and fire-resistant materials, subdivide the building into several fire-resistant compartments and install fire protection systems allowing detect and control the fire and control the smoke. Install or upgrade existing fire and smoke control elements where required, as well as fire protection materials in construction voids and other vertical and / or horizontal voids to limit spread smoke and flames. Make sure that any element penetrating a ceiling, wall or floor has an adequate fire stop; install door openers of an approved type on fire doors that are normally left open; and install the automatic closing device of the ventilation system in the event of fire. Have the electrical installation of the building inspected by an electrician every 10 years, or following any modification, to make sure that it does not present any danger.

Inspect and maintain all heating and protection systems.

Install the most efficient and adequate fire protection equipment and systems possible, according to your needs and budget, and keep them in good working order.

Implement measures to protect stored and exhibited collections from fire and water damage.

Develop procedures and plans to deal with emergency situations, to handle damaged collections, to recover them, and to protect large or particularly at risk collectibles on site. Table 1. Some strategies to reduce the risk of fire and damage caused by fires. Lightning Install and maintain lightning protection equipment. Proximity to neighboring fires, i.e. : forest, brush or grass fires;

buildings in flames. Hear the news. Keep the area clear of trees, uncut lawn and brush if the area is at high risk. Cover collections to protect them from smoke. Close the ventilation system. Close the edges of the openings. Keep the site and the building (s) wet. Electric sources: defective or overloaded electrical cables and panels;

faulty electrical equipment or devices. Have the electrical distribution system and work inspected by an electrician.

Make sure all equipment and appliances are listed or certified, in good working order, and turned off and unplugged when not in use. Dispose of devices with a frayed power cord, or whose working condition is questionable. Do not overload the circuits. Make sure fuses and circuit breakers are used properly. Avoid using extension cables and multiple outlet power adapters. Rather add other wall outlets if necessary. Use only electrical equipment that is CSA certified (Canadian Standards Association) or ULC rated (Underwriters’ Laboratories of Canada). Use of open flame and heat sources (i.e., interpretive activity fires, portable heaters, etc.) High temperature work (welding, cutting, burning, etc.) Maintain heat and flames away from combustible materials. Provide the fireplaces with a spark arrester. Keep a fire extinguisher handy. Maintain a fire hydrant consisting of people who have been trained in the use of fire extinguishers.

Establish a hot work permit system, if applicable. Supervise the work, and maintain a fire stake during the execution of the work (and for at least one [1] hour after it). Remove combustible materials from the hot work area. Keep a portable fire extinguisher of an appropriate type handy, and keep the fire protection systems operational at the end of the day. Presence of flammable liquids in the building Keep only small quantities inside the building. Apply appropriate handling, storage and disposal procedures. Keep the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) up to date, and label the containers of liquids appropriately. Prohibit the storage of these liquids inside the premises of mechanical or electrical installations, or near electrical boxes. Dangerous collections such as: cellulose nitrate films, weapons, explosives, flammable liquids, etc. Examine the collections to identify dangerous parts. Whenever possible, decommission the parts so that their handling, storage and display are not dangerous; label them accordingly, and keep a record of these procedures. Keep nitrate films in cold storage, or have copies made by an experienced company, then dispose of the originals (first consult your fire department for disposal measures) safe), or give the originals to an archiving company with the experience required to store them securely. Arson (sometimes used to divert attention from another crime, such as theft) Ask a crime prevention officer for advice on ways to make your establishment safer. Keep the outside of the building well lit at night; remove all equipment and collector’s items that do not have to be near the building and that could be used as fuel to start a fire; fold down shrubs that could hide an intruder or arsonist, especially near doors and windows. Ask the police to patrol the area at night. For any candidate for a position, perform a security check. Hire additional security guards for any controversial exhibition. Develop good relationships with the public and with the community at large. It is possible to partially control the spread of flames and smoke to adjoining areas or throughout the building by incorporating certain architectural elements and design features, such as the following: the use of noncombustible construction processes and finishes and resistant to flame spread; automatic shutdown of the ventilation system in the event of a fire; compartmentalization or subdivision of spaces such as collections reserves and very high risk areas into fire resistant areas; the installation of fire-resistant materials and elements in attics and attics, as well as in concealed spaces and in construction voids under floorboards, above ceilings, behind walls, etc .; the installation of fire-resistant materials at the level of plumbing elements, conduits, electrical pipes, etc., or in place of these (if they have been removed), in walls, floors and ceilings; the complete closure of the stairwells; and the installation of fire doors. If fire doors are normally kept open, they should be fitted with automatic door closers if the fire alarm system is activated. Many museums have worked closely and successfully with local fire departments to improve fire safety in their establishments, and to develop measures to protect their irreplaceable collections from damage and damage caused by fire. In many cases, and provided that the fire is brought under control and that the safety of persons is not jeopardized, measures can be taken to protect the items in the collections against heat, smoke, soot, and water. We have managed to save precious collector’s items from certain loss or damage by moving them to a safe place, covering them with waterproof tarpaulins, diverting water used for fire fighting. and using atomized water for control rather than jets. Take the time to develop good relationships with your fire department, give them copies of your building plans, and offer guided tours of the museum to all its members to allow them to familiarize themselves with the facilities and systems of the fire department. bâtiment (soit l’emplacement des canalisations d’incendie et des vannes de régulation par zones des gicleurs), ainsi qu’avec toute aire qui pourrait constituer une source d’incendie potentielle ou encore présenter des risques potentiels ou inattendus en cours de lutte contre l’incendie. Veillez à ce que le service d’incendie puisse avoir accès à toutes les parties du bâtiment en cas d’incendie. Demandez au service d’incendie de passer en revue vos consignes d’intervention en cas d’incendie, et faites en sorte qu’il prenne part à la formation de votre personnel en matière de prévention et d’intervention en cas d’incendie.

Matériel et systèmes de protection incendie On appelle « protection incendie active » l’installation de matériel, de systèmes et de dispositifs qui demandent une source d’énergie pour fonctionner, comme les systèmes de détection et d’alarme incendie et les systèmes d’extinction. Que ce soit pour installer un tout nouveau système, ou pour remplacer un système existant, faites appel aux services d’un spécialiste en protection incendie ayant de l’expérience dans la conception de systèmes destinés aux installations à valeur patrimoniale ou aux installations de salles blanches ou de milieux stériles, et qui travaillera de concert avec vous en vue d’atteindre vos objectifs en matière de protection incendie. Un système de protection professionnellement conçu, mis en place, entretenu et surveillé peut vous sembler coûteux, mais son absence peut être bien plus onéreuse. Le spécialiste en protection incendie évaluera quel système doit être utilisé (pour la protection de la sécurité des personnes seulement, du bâtiment et de son contenu, des collections, ou pour e l’ensemble); quels sont les risques contre lesquels ce système est censé vous protéger; la construction, les dimensions et la configuration de la structure et des espaces qu’elle contient; quelle est l’utilisation actuelle ou prévue des espaces qui sont protégés; quelles sont la disponibilité de l’alimentation en eau et la pression d’eau; et plusieurs autres facteurs. Dans le cas des établissements d’une taille allant de petite à moyenne, il suffira de mettre en place des systèmes de conception classique qui sont simples, fiables et économiques d’installation et d’entretien. Les établissements de plus grande taille ayant des exigences plus complexes demanderont des systèmes également plus complexes. À titre d’exemple, les établissements de taille moyenne peuvent n’avoir besoin que d’un tableau de signalisation de base qui indiquera qu’un dispositif de sécurité incendie a été activé en un point quelconque, alors que ceux de plus grande taille nécessiteront des tableaux de signalisation hautement perfectionnés, qui peuvent identifier précisément le dispositif ayant été activé, ainsi que remplir d’autres fonctions. Tout système devrait être conçu et installé en conformité avec les codes et les normes qui s’appliquent. Utilisez les composants de la meilleure qualité que vous pouvez vous permettre. Dans bien des cas, la différence de coût d’une qualité supérieure est négligeable, mais non la valeur ajoutée! Selon la taille et les ressources des établissements, les systèmes seront surveillés soit par une entreprise spécialisée externe, soit directement par le service d’incendie local, si ce service est offert dans votre communauté. Les établissements de plus grande taille peuvent disposer d’un personnel sur place chargé de la surveillance de leurs systèmes, et également d’une source d’alimentation électrique de secours en cas de panne de courant. Une fois installés, ces systèmes doivent être inspectés, testés et entretenus par une personne compétente et en conformité avec les codes qui s’appliquent.

Détection automatique des incendies Bien que les dispositifs du type détecteur de fumée puissent alerter d’un danger les personnes dans l’aire protégée et solliciter leur évacuation immédiate du bâtiment, ils se révèlent inadéquats pour protéger les biens culturels parce que la plupart des musées demeurent inoccupés (vacants) pendant de longues périodes. Si personne ne se trouve sur les lieux pour entendre l’alarme du détecteur de fumée et appeler le service d’incendie, le feu peut gagner en intensité et s’étendre rapidement avant qu’on ne le remarque et qu’on ne communique avec le service d’incendie. Les systèmes de détection et d’alarme incendie vont des installations de base aux systèmes plus complexes qui peuvent identifier lequel des dispositifs de détection a été activé et exécuter un certain nombre de fonctions secondaires comme mettre à l’arrêt les systèmes de circulation d’air, fermer les registres coupe-fumée des réseaux de conduits, déclencher des dispositifs de maintien des portes coupe-feu, avertir un service de surveillance 24 heures, 7 jours par semaine, et mettre en marche un type quelconque de système d’extinction automatique (consulter capsule 2). Il existe deux (2) principaux types de détecteurs d’incendie : les détecteurs de fumée et les détecteurs de chaleur. Comme les détecteurs de fumée sont conçus pour détecter les incendies à leur stade le plus précoce possible, ces appareils sont recommandés de façon généralisée, sauf dans les aires poussiéreuses ou enfumées où ils auraient tendance à déclencher des fausses alarmes. Comme il est mentionné précédemment, ne manquez pas de consulter un professionnel de la protection incendie pour vous assurer que chaque aire du bâtiment est protégée par le système de détection le plus efficace possible pour cet espace et pour réduire les risques d’alarmes intempestives. Dans la mise en place des détecteurs, il est également capital de tenir compte des courants d’air qui sont créés par les systèmes de ventilation ou les fenêtres ouvertes, de tout obstacle, ou de tout autre facteur pouvant nuire à l’efficacité de ces appareils. Détection de la fumée Les détecteurs de fumée sont des dispositifs qui détectent les particules de combustion, visibles ou invisibles. Il en existe essentiellement deux (2) types : les détecteurs photoélectriques (ou optiques) et les détecteurs ioniques (ou à variation d’ionisation). Les détecteurs photoélectriques sont le plus efficaces dans la détection des feux couvants, lesquels produisent une fumée formée de grosses particules. Les appareils ioniques répondent quant à eux plus rapidement aux feux à flamme vive de grande intensité, qui produisent de grandes quantités de petites particules. On peut installer des détecteurs combinant les deux principes, soit les détecteurs de fumée dits photoélectriques et ioniques, aux endroits où l’on recherche une protection contre les deux types de feux. Les détecteurs photoélectriques ont gagné en popularité ces dernières années non seulement en raison de leur détection considérablement plus rapide des feux couvants de faible intensité, mais également parce qu’ils peuvent égaler, voire surpasser le temps de réponse des appareils ioniques aux feux à flamme vive lorsque le foyer de l’incendie se trouve éloigné. Il existe également des détecteurs de fumée à aspiration, qui procurent une détection très précoce en aspirant l’air ambiant à travers un petit tube jusqu’à l’intérieur d’une cuve de détection, et en analysant cet air pour y détecter la présence de fumée. En raison de leur sensibilité élevée, les détecteurs de fumée à aspiration sont avantageux dans la protection des pièces de collection de très grande valeur. De plus, comme seule l’ouverture du tube d’aspiration demeure visible, leur emploi est approprié dans les cas où l’aspect des détecteurs de type classique pourrait être dérangeant, par exemple, parmi des moulures décoratives ou d’autres caractéristiques esthétiques d’un bâtiment. Toutefois ce type de système de détection est plus coûteux. Étant donné que les détecteurs de chaleur, comme les systèmes de gicleurs, réagissent à la chaleur et non à la fumée, la présence de détecteurs de fumée est importante en termes de réduction au minimum du potentiel de dommages causés par la fumée et la suie résultant des feux couvants à évolution lente (consulter la capsule 3). Détection de la chaleur On rencontre généralement deux (2) types de détecteurs de chaleur : thermostatique et vélocimétrique. Les détecteurs de chaleur du type thermostatique se déclenchent lorsque la température d’une pièce atteint une valeur prédéterminée, habituellement comprise entre 57 ° C et 75 ° C . Les détecteurs vélocimétriques répondent quant à eux à la vitesse d’élévation de la température dans le temps au-delà d’une valeurprédéterminée, ordinairement autour de 7 à 8 ° C . Comme les détecteurs de chaleur ne détectent pas les incendies à leur stade le plus précoce possible, ils ne procurent pas le même niveau de protection que les détecteurs de fumée. On devrait donc utiliser les détecteurs de chaleur uniquement dans les quelques aires où un détecteur de fumée serait susceptible de déclencher régulièrement des fausses alarmes – comme les milieux poussiéreux – ou encore dans les aires où des feux à flamme vive et à développement rapide pourraient éclater. Les détecteurs de chaleur conviennent le mieux à la protection des espaces poussiéreux ou espaces clos tels que garages, combles ou greniers, vides sanitaires et aires non chauffées où la température est susceptible de chuter sous les valeurs nominales de service des détecteurs de fumée.

Extinction des incendies Si l’on souhaite réduire au minimum les dommages et les pertes attribuables à un incendie, il est essentiel que celui-ci soit détecté et éteint au stade le plus précoce possible. Dans la plupart des situations, l’eau demeure l’agent extincteur le plus largement employé : dans les lances d’incendie, les gicleurs, les systèmes à eau atomisée et certains types d’extincteurs portatifs. L’eau demeure un agent facilement disponible, efficace et peu coûteux; elle a en outre la capacité de refroidir et de déplacer l’oxygène alimentant le feu. Lorsque de grandes quantités d’eau sont requises, une alimentation en eau ainsi qu’une pression d’eau fiables sont des conditions préalables essentielles à l’utilisation des lances d’incendie et, dans une moindre mesure, des systèmes de gicleurs. Des systèmes à agent extincteur gazeux sont disponibles pour des applications spéciales. Voici une brève description des types les plus courants de matériel et de systèmes d’extinction que l’on peut utiliser dans les établissements à valeur patrimoniale. Extincteurs portatifs Les extincteurs portatifs sont généralement requis par les codes de prévention des incendies. Utilisés par des personnes dûment formées, ils peuvent se révéler des instruments efficaces pour éteindre des petits feux encore restreints. Il est important de choisir le type d’extincteur qui convient selon la nature de l’incendie, à défaut de quoi cet appareil pourrait se révéler inefficace, voire dangereux. Par exemple, une personne qui utiliserait un extincteur à eau pour combattre un feu sur appareillage électrique sous tension risquerait de recevoir de graves décharges électriques. Utilisée sur un incendie de liquide inflammable ou de graisse, l’eau pourrait en fait contribuer à étendre l’incendie. Le type d’extincteur pour une aire donnée devrait être choisi en fonction de la nature précise des feux qui sont susceptibles d’éclater dans cette aire. Les quatre (4) principales classes de feux et les extincteurs correspondants pour les musées se répartissent comme suit : Classe A – matières combustibles courantes

Classe B – liquides inflammables

Classe C – appareillages électriques sous tension

Classe D – métaux combustibles tels que magnésium et sodium De nombreuses collectivités ont normalisé les extincteurs qu’elles emploient afin de faciliter leur utilisation et la formation exigée. Les extincteurs polyvalents dits ABC sont, de nos jours, souvent utilisés de façon généralisée dans le bâtiment, sur recommandation du service d’incendie, ce qui élimine le risque d’utilisation accidentelle d’un agent inadéquat. Consultez vos autorités locales ou votre conseiller en matière d’incendie afin de déterminer quel type d’extincteur est le plus approprié à chacune des aires de votre établissement. On installe généralement les extincteurs portatifs à proximité des issues. On doit les monter sur des consoles d’un type approuvé, les inspecter visuellement une (1) fois par mois et y faire une intervention d’entretien une (1) fois par année. Certains établissements ou collectivités préfèrent ne pas donner à leur personnel une formation sur le maniement des extincteurs portatifs afin de décourager ces personnes à les utiliser en cas d’incendie. L’argument principal de ce choix est que le personnel devrait plutôt déclencher l’alarme, appeler le service d’incendie (ou un service d’intervention équivalent) et évacuer le bâtiment, laissant ainsi au service le soin d’éteindre l’incendie. Bien que la sécurité des personnes passe toujours avant tout, et que personne ne devrait mettre sa vie ou celle des autres en danger en tentant d’éteindre soi-même un incendie potentiellement dangereux, certaines situations peuvent néanmoins commander l’utilisation d’un extincteur, par exemple, lorsque le feu bloque l’issue. Dans d’autres situations, l’utilisation d’un extincteur sur un petit feu circonscrit permettra de l’éteindre rapidement et sans danger avant qu’il ne puisse s’étendre. Pour utiliser un extincteur portatif, ne tenez pas la lance dirigée vers vous, et retenez la marche à suivre ci-après : Tirez sur la goupille.

Visez la base des flammes.

Serrez la détente, fermement et en exerçant une pression uniforme.

Effectuez avec la lance un mouvement de balayage latéral. Si le personnel n’est pas formé au préalable au maniement adéquat et sécuritaire des extincteurs portatifs, ces appareils risquent bien de devenir de simples cale-porte de luxe ou des objets sur lesquels on jette son manteau (consulter la figure 9). Figure 9. Extincteur non monté, utilisé comme accessoire pour maintenir une porte ouverte. Oui, la formation adéquate du personnel en matière d’intervention d’urgence peut faire la différence, tout spécialement dans une situation où il y a danger de mort. Extinction automatique Systèmes de gicleurs Les systèmes de gicleurs automatiques sont formés d’un réseau de tuyauteries fixes reliées à une source d’alimentation en eau, comportant des gicleurs montés sur les tuyaux selon un intervalle régulier, conçus pour débiter de l’eau lorsque la température atteint une valeur de consigne. Selon le Fire Sprinkler Network, les gicleurs sont en usage aux États-Unis depuis 1874 et, encore de nos jours, cette méthode d’extinction est largement reconnue comme étant la plus efficace pour lutter contre la propagation des flammes au stade naissant des incendies, soit avant qu’elles ne puissent causer des blessures et des dommages matériels graves.

Figure 10. Une tête de gicleur : cette tête de gicleur comporte des ampoules de verre remplies d’un liquide qui se dilate sous l’action de la chaleur et, ce faisant, fait éclater le verre. Un système de gicleurs est un moyen efficace et relativement peu coûteux de sauver des vies, des biens et des collections. Les gicleurs (figure 10) sont prêts à fonctionner rapidement et à tout moment de la journée ou de la nuit, et sont de plus insensibles aux conditions défavorables de circulation ou de climat, ainsi qu’aux fumées denses et aux émanations toxiques. Selon des experts, le système de gicleurs est le plus important de tous les systèmes de sécurité incendie qui peuvent protéger des biens culturels. Un système correctement conçu, installé et entretenu peut compenser certaines carences dans la gestion des risques, dans la construction du bâtiment et dans la capacité d’intervention d’urgence, et procure en outre une souplesse accrue de la conception du bâtiment. Étant donné que la majorité des musées contiennent d’importantes quantités de matériels irremplaçables et de nature hautement combustible, et que les incendies peuvent se développer et s’étendre rapidement, il est hautement recommandé de prévoir un système d’extinction automatique comme les gicleurs à l’échelle de tout le bâtiment afin d’éteindre ou, à tout le moins, de maîtriser les incendies le temps que les pompiers puissent arriver et s’installer pour l’extinction. De nombreux établissements croient qu’ils sont adéquatement protégés en raison de la proximité de la caserne des pompiers et qu’ils ne requièrent donc pas de système d’extinction automatique. Toutefois, outre les retards potentiels et les autres problèmes mentionnés précédemment, il faut également prendre en compte le risque que le service d’incendie pourrait être occupé ailleurs par une autre urgence. Avec un système de gicleurs, la protection incendie est en place et disponible en tout temps. Il n’est pas étonnant que, historiquement, les établissements qui ont subi les plus lourdes pertes directement imputables à un incendie soient ceux qui n’étaient pas équipés de gicleurs. Les musées qui sont protégés par ce système subissent généralement des pertes et des dommages relativement mineurs. Nombreux sont les établissements abritant des collections qui hésitent à installer des gicleurs par peur d’exposer celles-ci au risque de déclenchements accidentels et de dégâts causés par l’eau. En réalité, les déclenchements accidentels et les fuites attribuables à des défauts de fabrication sont relativement rares. De plus, les dommages causés par les gicleurs eux-mêmes sont généralement beaucoup moins importants que ceux causés par le jet des lances d’incendie à haute pression qui sont utilisées dans la lutte contre le feu. Le débit de l’eau provenant des gicleurs est d’environ 100 litres par minute par tête de gicleur et cette eau est dispersée comme une pluie douce, tandis que le débit de tuyaux d’incendie est de 500 à 1000 litres par minute par tuyau, et c’est une eau refoulée sous forte pression. Selon d’autres établissements, l’installation de gicleurs est trop coûteuse. Or, malheureusement, de nombreux musées sinistrés qui n’étaient pas protégés par ce type de système ont, en bout de ligne, payé deux fois : d’abord pour la restauration la reconstruction, et ensuite pour l’installation d’un système de gicleurs après coup! Dans la majorité des cas, le coût du système de gicleurs était inférieur à celui de la restauration/reconstruction. Dans les cas où l’esthétique est une considération importante, par exemple, dans les maisons patrimoniales faisant fonction de musées, il est possible d’installer des gicleurs muraux ou encastrés, plus discret visuellement, dont les couvercles sont assortis à la surface du mur ou du plafond. Toutefois, il faut retenir que cet assortiment de la couleur doit être réalisé par le fabricant : il est contraire aux exigences des codes de peinturer des gicleurs ou d’altérer ceux-ci de quelque autre façon, car cela pourrait nuire à leur fonctionnement. Il existe des systèmes de gicleurs à noyage total, conçus pour les espaces industriels, mais on ne les utilise généralement pas dans les installations culturelles. Ordinairement, seuls les gicleurs qui sont directement exposés au feu se déclenchent, et la majorité des feux sont maîtrisés efficacement par 1 à 4 gicleurs. Pour les établissements qui sont situés dans des régions sujettes à l’activité sismique, il est important que l’installation des systèmes de gicleurs inclue des entretoisements et autres caractéristiques parasismiques. On rencontre en général trois (3) types principaux de systèmes de gicleurs : sous eau, sous air et à préaction. Voici une courte description de chacun de ces systèmes, et certains des avantages et des inconvénients que présente leur emploi. Le système sous eau Dans un système dit sous eau, l’eau dans les canalisations est maintenue sous pression et alimente des têtes de gicleur actionnées par la chaleur ambiante. Seuls les gicleurs exposés à une chaleur élevée se déclenchent pour éteindre l’incendie. Dans la majorité des situations, ce système sous eau de type standard est hautement recommandé car il est fiable, d’un entretien facile et relativement peu coûteux; comme il est maintenu toujours sous pression et prêt à fonctionner, son temps de réaction est court. Le principal inconvénient de ce système est celui des dégâts causés par l’eau qu’il peut causer par des déclenchements accidentels qui, en fait, surviennent très rarement et contre lesquels des précautions peuvent être prises. Par exemple, s’il y a risque que des gicleurs soient heurtés (par des personnes, des portes d’armoire, des chariots élévateurs, etc.), on peut les installer en position inversée (dressés sur la partie supérieure de la tuyauterie), sur les murs ou encastrés plutôt que dans la position pendante standard. On peut également munir les têtes de gicleur pendantes de grillages de protection. Le système sous air Dans un système dit sous air, le réseau de canalisations est rempli en permanence d’air sous pression plutôt que d’eau, laquelle est retenue par une soupape. Lorsqu’une tête de gicleur est déclenchée, l’air sous pression s’échappe de la canalisation, ouvrant ainsi la soupape qui admet dans la tuyauterie l’eau, qui est alors éjectée par le gicleur. Toutefois, les systèmes sous air sont sujets à la corrosion et à l’accumulation de tartre dans les canalisations, causées par la condensation et l’humidité résiduelle après les mises à l’essai requises, ce qui les rend moins fiables que les systèmes sous eau. Tout comme les systèmes à préaction, ils sont plus complexes, plus coûteux et d’un entretien plus difficile, et leur débit est plus lent. Les systèmes sous air sont utilisés essentiellement dans des espaces qui sont exposées au gel, tels que les quais de chargement. Le système à préaction Dans un système dit à préaction, l’eau est retenue par une soupape, comme dans le cas du système sous air, mais l’ouverture de cette soupape admettant l’eau dans la tuyauterie requiert le déclenchement d’un système de détection d’incendie local. Le système fonctionne alors comme le système sous eau standard. De nombreux établissements ont installé des systèmes à préaction plutôt que des systèmes sous eau afin de réduire le risque de dégâts causés par l’eau dans les aires des collections, attribuables à des déclenchements accidentels ou à des fuites des canalisations ou des têtes de gicleur. Or, bien que l’emploi de ce système soit effectivement avantageux dans les aires qui contiennent des collections sensibles à l’eau et d’une grande valeur, il comporte cependant des inconvénients et des problèmes, dont les suivants : Ce type de système prend plus de temps à atteindre sa capacité de débit, ce qui permet au feu de s’étendre dans l’intervalle et de demander le déclenchement d’un plus grand nombre de têtes, qui entraîne donc plus de dégâts d’eau.

Le système à préaction étant plus complexe que le système sous eau classique, le risque d’anomalie ou de défectuosité augmente donc en conséquence. Par exemple, un problème au niveau du système de détection d’incendie pourrait nuire au bon fonctionnement du système de gicleurs.

Comme dans le cas des gicleurs sous air, puisque les canalisations sont remplies d’air, l’humidité dans celles-ci risque d’entraîner la corrosion et l’accumulation de tartre et de nuire au bon fonctionnement du système.

En raison de leur complexité, les systèmes à préaction sont d’une installation et d’un entretien plus coûteux que les systèmes sous eau. Il existe également des systèmes dits à fonctionnement intermittent (ou marche/arrêt), dont les gicleurs déclenchés se ferment automatiquement lorsque la température ambiante retombe sous une valeur de consigne, et se rouvrent de nouveau si le feu se rallume. Toutefois, ces systèmes sont complexes et coûteux. Dans la plupart des centres urbains, le service d’incendie aura généralement le temps d’arriver sur les lieux avant que la zone touchée n’ait pu refroidir suffisamment pour arrêter le système. C’est donc dire que celui-ci offre peu d’avantages pour la majorité des établissements à valeur patrimoniale. Quel que soit le type de système de gicleurs retenu, il devrait toujours être conçu par des professionnels ayant de l’expérience, fabriqué par une société renommée, avec des matériaux de haute qualité, installé en conformité avec les exigences de la norme NFPA 13 : Installation of Sprinkler Systems, et mis à l’essai et révisé une (1) fois par année par un personnel compétent, pour fin de maintien en bon état de fonctionnement. Le système à brouillard d’eau Un système d’extinction automatique à eau, relativement nouveau, projette de petites quantités d’eau sous haute pression, ce qui donne un brouillard fin. Cette atomisation refroidit et maîtrise efficacement le feu en débitant environ 10 % seulement de la quantité d’eau qui serait fournie par un système de gicleurs classique; il en résulte donc moins de dégâts d’eau potentiels. En outre, comme l’eau atomisée en brouillard fin ne conduit pas l’électricité de la même façon qu’un jet, on peut l’utiliser sur du matériel électrique sous tension. Dans les cas où la propreté de l’eau débitée est critique, on peut employer des canalisations en acier inoxydable et de l’eau distillée. Bien que les systèmes à eau atomisée aient été conçus à l’origine principalement pour les applications marines, on les installe de plus en plus dans les musées et les installations d’archivage, ainsi que dans les édifices à valeur patrimoniale. Ces systèmes sont tout particulièrement pratiques pour les bâtiments patrimoniaux qui subissent des travaux de réhabilitation ou de transformation : les canalisations souples et de petit diamètre peuvent être installées dans les endroits d’accès restreint et difficile, là il serait difficile voire impossible d’installer des canalisations de gicleurs traditionnelles sans défaire des éléments de la construction d’origine. Les systèmes de gicleurs à brouillard d’eau peuvent être raccordés à la plomberie d’une source d’alimentation en eau permanente, ou à une série de réservoirs d’eau se trouvant à proximité. Ce dernier scénario pourrait convenir dans les situations où l’approvisionnement en eau d’extinction n’est pas fiable, ou pour les établissements saisonniers qui ne sont pas chauffés en hiver. Comme l’eau n’est pas maintenue dans les canalisations, les aires du bâtiment qui sont sujettes au gel peuvent toujours être protégées, à condition que l’eau dans les réservoirs soit elle-même maintenue au-dessus du point de congélation. Même si ce type de système d’extinction est très prometteur pour les établissements à valeur patrimoniale, il s’agit néanmoins d’une technologie nouvelle et, à ce titre, il peut s’avérer difficile de trouver des entrepreneurs qui connaissent bien ces systèmes et ont l’expérience requise pour les installer. Cependant, ce problème devrait de moins en moins se poser à mesure que l’usage de ce système se répandra. Le système d’extinction automatique à agent gazeux Depuis l’abandon des gaz Halon, contenant des CFC, pour des raisons environnementales, plusieurs prétendues solutions de rechange au Halon ont été développées, et certains musées mettent en place dans leurs aires de collections des systèmes qui utilisent ces solutions de rechange à la place des systèmes à base d’eau. Toutefois, pour les établissements qui sont dotés actuellement de systèmes au Halon, il n’existe simplement pas de véritable système de remplacement facile, car une nouvelle tuyauterie serait généralement requise. Contrairement aux têtes de gicleur, qui projettent l’eau indépendamment les unes des autres, les systèmes d’extinction à agent gazeux sont des systèmes à saturation totale : l’agent extincteur est débité simultanément par toutes les buses à l’intérieur de l’espace protégé, jusqu’à obtention de la concentration requise pour une extinction efficace. Les systèmes à agent extincteur gazeux offrent l’avantage que les collections ne subissent aucun dégât d’eau lors d’un incendie. Toutefois, comme avec d’autres types de systèmes d’extinction, des inconvénients, des restrictions et des problèmes potentiels peuvent découler de l’utilisation de ces systèmes, dont on devrait tenir compte en optant pour ceux-ci. Notamment : Ces systèmes sont essentiellement conçus pour des espaces bien étanches, comme les chambres d’entreposage. Leur efficacité sera compromise si la porte donnant accès à l’aire protégée est maintenue ouverte, s’il existe une ou des ouvertures par lesquelles le gaz peut s’échapper, ou si l’installation de ventilation et les registres coupe-fumée ne se sont pas fermés.

Certains systèmes nécessitent une mise à l’air libre afin que le remplacement de l’air de la pièce soit possible.

Une fois le gaz projeté et dissipé, l’aire ne se trouve plus protégée tant que le gaz n’a pas été remplacé et le système, réarmé. Par conséquent, il est hautement recommandé de prévoir également un système de gicleurs d’appoint.

Les systèmes à agent gazeux coûtent ordinairement plus cher que les systèmes de gicleurs.

Les systèmes à agent gazeux sont assez complexes; pour qu’ils soient efficaces, chacun de leurs composants doit fonctionner adéquatement.

La conception, l’installation et les interventions d’entretien et de réparation de ces systèmes par un personnel compétent dans des établissements en région éloignée ou dans de petites agglomérations peuvent se révéler incommodes et coûteuses, voire irréalisables. Vous trouverez ci-après une brève description de plusieurs agents gazeux qui sont employés dans les musées canadiens. Inergen L’Inergen est un gaz inerte composé d’azote (52 %), d’argon (40 %) et de dioxyde de carbone (8 %). Bien que ce gaz éteigne le feu par réduction de la concentration d’oxygène en deçà du seuil d’entretien de la combustion, cette concentration d’oxygène demeure suffisante pour permettre de respirer sans danger. Puisqu’il s’agit d’un produit complètement inerte et non résiduel, il ne représente en outre aucun danger pour les collections. La projection de l’agent ne restreint pas non plus la visibilité, ni ne cause de chute marquée de la température comme le font certains autres systèmes. Comme la projection de l’Inergen se fait sous haute pression, ce système nécessite l’emploi d’une quincaillerie particulièrement robuste qui y résistera. L’Inergen requiert en outre un plus grand nombre de réservoirs d’emmagasinage de l’agent que certains autres systèmes pour protéger une aire de mêmes dimensions, ce qui fait intervenir des considérations liées à l’espace et au poids. Le coût du matériel requis pour ce système est généralement plus élevé que celui d’autres systèmes; par contre, l’agent extincteur est lui moins coûteux et plus facile à remplacer. FM 200 Le FM 200 est un hydrocarbure halogéné qui éteint le feu par absorption de chaleur. Bien qu’il n’y ait aucun risque que l’oxygène atteigne ainsi un seuil dangereux pour la respiration, il existe néanmoins des incidences sur la santé humaine en raison des produits chimiques nocifs qui sont dégagés pendant la projection. Le FM 200 est stocké sous forme liquide et est projeté à l’état gazeux. Comme un système utilisant cet agent requiert un volume de liquide stocké relativement restreint, c’est un choix à considérer dans les cas où un espace de stockage limité est disponible. Parmi les inconvénients du FM 200, mentionnons un certain potentiel de contribution à l’effet de serre, ainsi que la formation de certains produits de décomposition qui pourraient nuire à des collections. Bien que ce système soit généralement moins coûteux à installer, le coût de l’agent est plus élevé que celui des gaz inertes. NOVEC 1230 Bien que le système d’extinction par saturation totale écologique (« à agent propre ») à la cétone fluorée NOVEC 1230 soit installé en Europe depuis un certain nombre d’années, il est relativement nouveau en Amérique du Nord et tout spécialement au Canada. Expédié et stocké comme liquide, il se vaporise à la projection et éteint les incendies par absorption de la chaleur. Le NOVEC 1230 possède le temps de résidence dans l’atmosphère le plus court, soit 5 jours (contre 33 ans), de tous les agents extincteurs à base d’hydrocarbure halogéné qui sont offerts actuellement, la meilleure marge d’innocuité pour utilisation dans des espaces occupés et enfin un potentiel d’appauvrissement de la couche d’ozone nul. Il faut généralement un moins grand nombre de réservoirs d’agent stocké pour protéger le même volume d’espace qu’avec d’autres systèmes à agent gazeux. Par contre, les réservoirs doivent être situés à moins de 20 à 30 m de l’espace à protéger. À l’instar de la plupart des systèmes à agent gazeux, la projection de NOVEC 1230 se produit à haute pression. Le NOVEC 1230 élimine les dégâts d’eau et les dommages causés par les produits chimiques aux ordinateurs, aux composants électroniques, aux livres, aux œuvres d’art, etc. Lors de démonstrations, des pièces de collection immergées dans cet agent extincteur ont pu en être retirées sèches et intactes. Le tableau 2 ci-après résume les caractéristiques des trois (3) systèmes à agent gazeux dont nous venons de traiter. Tableau 2. Résumé des caractéristiques des agents d’extinction gazeux dits écologiques ou « propres ». Système Commentaires En général Pas de dégâts causés par l’eau.

Conviennent seulement à une utilisation dans des espaces bien étanches.

Dans certains cas, un espace considérable est requis pour entreposer les réservoirs.

La pression de projection peut se révéler dommageable.

Loin des grands centres urbains, l’installation et les interventions d’entretien/de réparation par des personnes compétentes peuvent constituer un problème.

Un système de gicleurs d’appoint est recommandé en cas d’extinction incomplète par le système à agent gazeux. NOVEC 1230 Agent à base de fluorocétone.

Éteint le feu par absorption de chaleur.

Nécessite un moins grand nombre de réservoirs et moins de superficie au sol pour protéger un espace donné.

Risque de production de gaz de décomposition lorsque certaines conditions sont réunies. label them accordingly, and keep

Moins coûteux que certains autres systèmes à agent gazeux. Inergen Gaz totalement inerte composé d’azote, d’argon et de dioxyde de carbone.

Possède la pression de projection la plus élevée et requiert plus d’espace pour l’entreposage des bouteilles de gaz. FM 200 Hydrocarbure halogéné.

Éteint le feu par absorption de chaleur.

Ce qui se rapproche le plus d’un système de substitution au système à Halon 1301.

Nécessite moins de réservoirs de stockage que certains autres systèmes.

Produit des gaz de décomposition. Comme pour tout autre système de protection incendie, consultez un ingénieur de sécurité incendie pour déterminer si un système d’extinction à agent gazeux conviendrait ou non à votre établissement.

Capsules Capsule 1 Durant la nuit du 19 août 1980, le Miner’s Museum du Cap–Breton (figure 7), à Glace Bay (Nouvelle-Écosse) a été ravagé par un incendie catastrophique. Le personnel du musée ignore quelle a été la cause de l’incendie, mais il pourrait s’agir d’un article de fumeur oublié pendant un concert en soirée, dans l’auditorium attenant, ou encore d’un acte de vandalisme. (Des débris de cocktails Molotov avaient été trouvés sur les lieux quelques semaines avant l’incendie.) La structure était d’une construction moderne, incombustible et résistant à la propagation de la flamme, et comprenait, outre l’auditorium, un centre d’exposition national pour les expositions itinérantes. On n’y trouvait aucun système d’alarme incendie surveillé ni système d’extinction automatique, et il n’y avait pas non plus de porte coupe-feu à l’entrée du puits de mines de charbon situé sous le musée. D’anciens mineurs servaient de guides aux visiteurs du puits de mines, qui demeurait une attraction très populaire. Figure 11. Le Miner’s Museum, à Glace Bay (Nouvelle-Écosse). Photographie « avant l’incendie », prise le 18 août 1980 . Le soir de l’incendie, un concert mettant en vedette l’ensemble Men of the Deeps a eu lieu dans l’auditorium. Il était normal à l’époque qu’il soit permis d’y fumer. Environ une heure après le concert, un passant remarqua des flammes s’élançant vers le ciel depuis les fenêtres hautes de la bibliothèque du musée et appela le service des pompiers volontaires local. Les pompiers arrivèrent promptement sur les lieux, et des intervenants supplémentaires furent dépêchés de la ville voisine, Sydney. L’incendie a fait rage pendant trois nuits et deux jours, causant la perte d’environ 70 à 80 % du bâtiment et de ses collections (figure 8). Étant donné que la première priorité des intervenants du service d’incendie était d’empêcher l’incendie de se propager aux filons de charbon par le puits de mines, le reste du musée a donc dû être sacrifié. Figure 12. Le Miner’s Museum, à Glace Bay (Nouvelle-Écosse).

Photographie « après », prise trois jours plus tard. Si le musée avait été doté d’un système de détection de la fumée surveillé, l’incendie aurait peut-être été décelé avant l’embrasement, et un système de gicleurs aurait quant à lui pu maîtriser, voire éteindre complètement, l’incendie même avant l’arrivée sur les lieux du service d’incendie. Les pertes n’auraient été que mineures. Grâce à l’appui concerté des membres de la communauté, le musée a depuis été reconstruit. Il comporte désormais un système de vidéosurveillance à l’intérieur comme à l’extérieur, un éclairage de sécurité pour l’extérieur, un système d’alarme incendie surveillé, un système de détection de la chaleur et de la fumée, un système de gicleurs sous eau, ainsi que des portes coupe-feu en métal pour protéger l’entrée du puits de mines. Capsule 2 Une nuit du mois d’août 1992, un incendie criminel éclata dans une salle du rez-de-chaussée du Lieu historique national du domaine Billings, maison patrimoniale faisant fonction de musée, à Ottawa (Ontario) (figure 13). Bien que le musée fût situé en un site visuellement éloigné et en retrait par rapport à la circulation tant piétonnière qu’automobile d’un quartier résidentiel, l’incendie a été décelé rapidement par le système de détection surveillé; ainsi le service d’incendie a été en mesure de réagir rapidement. Figure 13. Le Lieu historique national du domaine Billings : Vue extérieure. Les fenêtres condamnées indiquent l’emplacement de l’incendie dans le musée. Au cours des mois ayant précédé l’incendie, des plans avaient été mis en œuvre en vue d’installer un système de gicleurs. La directrice du musée avait également rencontré le service d’incendie local afin de discuter de ses préoccupations concernant les dégâts causés par l’eau qui pourraient résulter de l’extinction d’un incendie. Cette discussion qui s’est révélée providentielle! Étant donné que l’incendie est survenu en dehors des heures de travail, la sécurité des personnes n’était pas en cause. De même, comme les pompiers sont arrivés sur place alors que l’incendie était encore relativement circonscrit et maîtrisable, ils ont été capables de pénétrer dans la structure armés d’extincteurs à anhydride carbonique pendant que l’on raccordait les tuyaux à la canalisation d’incendie. Une fois les tuyaux raccordés, le brasier a été combattu non pas avec des jets de lance mais avec de l’eau pulvérisée. Figure 14. Lieu historique national du domaine Billings :

Vue intérieure du site de l’incendie. Grâce au système de détection de la fumée surveillé ainsi qu’à l’interventionprompte du service d’incendie, en dehors des heures normales de travail, les dommages importants ont pu être limités à seulement une pièce de cette maison patrimoniale. Même si, dans tout l’établissement, des dommages assez importants ont été causés par la suie, en plus de certains dommages causés par la chaleur et les flammes dans la pièce où l’incendie a pris naissance (figure 14), la maison comme les collections qu’elle renfermait n’ont subi pratiquement pas de dégâts causés par l’eau. Ce musée a depuis fait installer un système de gicleurs. Capsule 3 Lors de travaux de rénovation de salles d’exposition permanentes et de construction de nouvelles salles de ce type au Saskatchewan Museum of Natural History (rebaptisé aujourd’hui Royal Saskatchewan Museum), à Regina (Saskatchewan), un feu couvant a pris naissance lorsque la chaleur produite par la polymérisation d’une mousse isolante à deux composants s’est trouvée piégée au contact de matériaux de construction modernes du type résistant au feu, causant ainsi la production et la propagation d’une épaisse fumée. Étant donné que l’on avait recouvert les détecteurs de fumée dans l’aire du projet afin qu’ils ne soient pas contaminés par la poussière pendant les travaux de rénovation, la détection de l’incendie a ainsi été retardée jusqu’au déclenchement d’un détecteur de fumée situé ailleurs dans le musée. De plus, l’arrêt automatique du ventilateur du système de ventilation mécanique du musée a fait défaut, ce qui a permis à la fumée de gagner rapidement tout l’établissement. Bien que le temps de réponse du service d’incendie ait été court, l’accumulation d’une fumée épaisse et l’absence d’un système d’alarme incendie zoné ont empêché les intervenants de localiser rapidement le foyer de l’incendie, et il en est résulté une épaisse couche de suie qui s’est déposée dans tout l’édifice, y compris les salles d’exposition permanente et les dioramas. Heureusement, avant le début des travaux de rénovation, on avait enlevé et relocalisé la majeure partie des collections du musée dans un entrepôt éloigné. Selon les statistiques, les travaux de construction et de rénovation sont pour les musées des activités à risques très élevés. Dans ce cas-ci, si les détecteurs de fumée avaient été remis en fonction à la fin de chaque journée de travail, et si un piquet d’incendie avait été mis en place pendant la période des travaux de construction et jusqu’à plusieurs heures après, l’incendie aurait pu être détecté à un stade plus précoce et éteint avant de pouvoir causer quelque dommage majeur que ce soit.

Best Tortilla Press Reviews for 2019 – Wooden, Aluminum or Cast Iron?

Ah, the humble tortilla… From “hugging” our favorite burrito ingredients to serving as a crunchy bed for cheesy quesadillas, this versatile flatbread can add a new dimension of flavor and texture to just about every Mexican (or Mexican-inspired) meal.

best tortilla press

But, even though store-bought tortillas are the epitome of convenience, nothing hits the spot quite like the homemade version. OK sure, making tortillas at home feels like a daunting (may we add, tedious) task when you first hear about it. But, it can be a total breeze if you’re equipped with the right tools. That’s where the best tortilla press steps in.

This easy-to-use kitchen appliance is designed to transform a dull, homemade tortilla dough into the tasty flatbread we know and love. So, if you’ve had it with the preservative-packed store-bought tortillas, it’s time you invested in a tortilla press that’s worthy of your countertop. That said, here is our best tortilla press guide and everything you need to know to put them to full use ASAP.

These are the best tortilla presses we tested ranked, in order.

Central Coast Woodworks 8-Inch Hardwood Tortilla Press HIC 6-Inch Tortilla Press Victoria Cast Iron Tortilla Press Cucina Pro Electric Tortilla Maker La Mexicana Mesquite Tortilla Press Tortillada Imusa 8-Inch Aluminum Tortilla Press M.D.S Cuisine Cookwares 10 inch commercial tortilla press Homeleader Roti Tortilla Maker Cuisinart CPP-200

Top 10 Tortilla Presses for 2019 with Reviews

Taking into account everything, from size and material to efficiency and convenience, we present you with the top 10 tortilla presses to buy in 2019.

1. Hardwood Tortilla Press by Central Coast Woodworks – Best wooden one

If you want to make tortillas in the most authentic way possible, then this high-quality wooden press is a great place to start. Made of red oak and walnut, the Hardwood Tortilla Press comes in three shapes to accommodate everyone’s needs, whether they have a small or large kitchen.

Sturdy Material Red oak and walnut are two of the most durable and hulking types of wood out there. So, the material of this wooden press alone guarantees you’ll enjoy flat (not uneven) tortillas for the years to come. Eye-Catching Design A quick look will convince you that this press is a true masterpiece, from the colors to the finishing touches. Many people claim that it’s a functional work of art. Easy to Clean Coated with beeswax and food grade mineral oils, this tortilla press featured two well-polished plates (top and bottom) which can be easily cleaned using a wet paper towel. Size Variety The product comes in three different sizes; small (about 8”), medium (about 10”) and large (about 11.5”). You have the chance to choose between the three sizes, depending on your needs and countertop size.

High Price Compared to many tortilla presses out there, this one doesn’t come cheap. However, considering the materials used and the fact that it’s handmade, the high price is actually understandable.

2. Tortilla Press by HIC Harold Import Co.- Best aluminum tortilla maker

If you want perfectly flat tortillas but are not interested in cast iron presses, then this aluminum tortilla maker is an excellent alternative. Ready to find out why this one stands out from the rest of its kind?

Heavyweight Aluminum Unlike most aluminum presses, this one is made of heavyweight aluminum. That means that it’s actually sturdier and doesn’t require much pressure on your behalf. Versatility Thanks to its relatively small size, this press can be used to make other goodies besides tortillas such as moo shoo pancakes, pita bread, focaccia and much more. Easy to Clean Both plates have a smooth surface. So, you can easily remove any tortilla traces with a wet towel. Kid-Safe Given its simple, easy-to-use design and small size, this press is also suitable for use by children. You can engage them in the tortilla-making process, making things more interesting in the kitchen for you and your little ones alike.

Still Not As Efficient As Cast Iron Presses Even though this tool is slightly heavier than its peers, it’s still no match for cast iron presses. So, it may produce flat tortillas, but they are still thicker than the ones made by cast iron presses.

3. Best Cast Iron Tortilla Press and Panacotera by Victoria

If you are looking for a high-quality tortilla maker that delivers 100% of the time, then this cast iron press is a no-brainer. But, that’s not the only reason you should pick this “tortilladora.” Let’s take a close look at its top qualities and negligible downsides.

Affordable Given the tool’s material (cast iron) and high-quality design, it’s actually quite affordable. Sturdy Design Fun fact: Cast iron is one of the most stable materials out there. As a result, this type of presses guarantees you can make flat tortillas every time you step into the kitchen. Easy to Clean The plates are flat, making it easy to get rid of remaining tortilla crumbs after use. All you need is a wet paper towel. Easy Storage Despite its bulky size, you’ll have no trouble storing it.

May Rust With Time Even though it will take some time, the inside coating of this tortilla maker may gradually come off. Clean it properly to maintain it as long as possible.

4. Best Electric Tortilla Maker by Cucina Pro

If you are looking for a press that doesn’t just flatten the tortilla dough but also cooks it for you, then we have the perfect choice just for you. This electric tortilla maker spares you the extra time over the stove without discounting on taste. Here is everything you need to know (both good and bad) about this all-in-one device.

Cooking on Demand Besides flattening the tortillas, this unique maker is also designed to cook them as you press the dough down. However, you can use this feature on demand merely by plugging the device. Large Tortillas Sporting two 10-inch surfaces, this tool can help you make big tortillas to satisfy even the hungriest guests. Coated Finish It’s equipped with non-stick, coated plates, preventing the tortillas from sticking and making a mess as you cook. Even Heat Distribution Since the plates are reinforced with non-stick coating, the heat is distributed evenly. Easy to Clean The surfaces of the device’s plates are meticulously flat, making cleanup a breeze.

Slightly Expensive Compared to others, this tortilla maker is somewhat expensive. However, it comes with many extra features which justify the price. Long Cooking Time Some customers have reported that the press takes too long to cook the tortillas.

5. La Mexicana Mezquite- Best Mexican tortilla press

Want to make tortillas the absolute authentic way? Then the La Mexicana Mesquite Tortilla Press is going to be just the thing for you!

This traditional wooden press flats out dough balls on the very first go, making perfectly even and fairly large tortillas each time you use it!

Enduring built This tortilla press is made of heavy-set wood, making it one of the largest and heaviest out there, weighing an impressive 10 pounds. This remarkably enduring build ensures the product’s resistance against daily wear and tear. Make large tortillas! This wooden tortilla press comes with substantially large wooden plates that make consistently even and large tortillas each time. This dispenses the need for sizing up the dough balls each time you are about to press them. The significantly large portions of the tortillas also serve more people, for that matter Easy to clean The La Mexicana Mezquite Tortilla Press comes with a pretty simple layout and spacious surface area which is pretty easy to clean and maintain, unlike most other heavy-set metal presses. The organic wooden surface also keeps it clean and hygienic for preparing food, keeping the flavors intact.

Not ergonomically designed This tortilla press lacks proper gripping features, and it could be a tad bit difficult to handle it due to that very reason. The large wooden plates may fall off the central unit as there is no supportive spot available.

6. Tortillada- Large Premium Cast Iron Tortilla Press

One of the best cast-iron presses out there on the market right now, the Tortillada cast iron press brings beauty with exceeding functionality for all your tortilla requirements. The superior grade cast iron of the press can make tortillas, empanadas, arepas, dumplings, mini pie shells and so much more within a flash!

Extremely durable built The cast-iron press is made of premium quality cast iron, which makes it immensely durable against regular wear and tear. It holds up easily under high temperatures and runs no risk of cracking and chipping in harsh conditions. Substantially sized plates The cast-iron plates are 10 inch wide. It can, therefore, make sufficiently sized tortillas. Similar to the La Mexicana model, this tortilla press can solve the issues of sizing up the flour doughs, serving large portions each time. Comes with clear instructions and recipes The product comes with detailed instructions that make it pretty easy to use even for the first time. And along with that, the brand also provides a booklet of wonderful recipes which you can prepare using this device.

Not very easy to clean Although the brand attaches the cleaning instructions with the package, the 12-pound structure can be difficult to clean.

7. IMUSA USA MEXI-86008 – Best corn tortilla press

The IMUSA USA MEXI is a beautiful aluminum tortilla press which works for both flour and corn tortillas. Additionally, it will make a range of food items such as rotis, flatbreads, and tostones to enabling you to cook up a storm of delicacies!

Durable Aluminum construction The aluminum body of the press is durable enough to absorb sudden external shocks and jerks, if not formidable like cast iron. There is no risk of rust and corrosion owing to the strong aluminum construction and finish of the object. It is resistant to staining and hence, prevents any chance of bacterial growth. Traditional press mechanism It is often noticed that most roti or tortilla press falter when it comes to providing proper mechanisms which could ensure just the right amount of weight to make the ideal press. The IMUSA USA MEXI surprisingly provides just the ideal leverage and an entirely traditionally plate set up which guarantee perfectly round tortillas with consistently thick edges each time! Easy to use The construction and design of this tortilla press offer complete ease of use for everyone. And when we say everyone, we mean even the kids who can have an enjoyable experience of learning to make tortillas with it. Easy storage The sleek design and comparatively lightweight construction of the press make it a pretty space-efficient unit, that could be stored easily, anywhere in the house.

Plastic Handle The only issue with the press could be its plastic handle that may break or pop off after a point of time if subjected to high pressure or force.

8. 10” Heavy-duty commercial tortilla press by M.D.S Cuisine Cookwares

And this one’s for all those who want to have a beast of a tortilla machine for cooking large batches of these Mexican delights within the blink of an eye! This commercial-grade tortilla press is ideal for making beautifully consistent tortillas at one go!

Makes perfectly even and round tortillas each time This heavy-duty tortilla press enables you to make perfectly even, consistent tortillas instantly. Thanks to the effective leverage delivered by the press, the doughs are pressed just right without having any bumps or uneven spots on them. This makes it easy to cook them well without having to worry about raw patches being left behind. Incredibly strong built The robust commercial-grade metal construction of the press makes it significantly formidable against cracking or chipping. It can withstand heavy blunt forces and resists the onslaught of rust and corrosion. The press is ideal for commercial use and could be an appropriate addition for cafes and restaurants which require instant cooking. Easy to maintain It doesn’t require much to maintain this unit as it is already so durably constructed. It is also easy to clean, owing to its rust-proof and stain-resistant finish. And although it is heavy, it is designed compactly to fit in limited spaces.

Requires you to put a lot of pressure Well, the unit is obviously pretty heavy to move around and requires you to put substantial pressure on its heavy-metal handle to get the job done.

9. Electric Tortilla, Roti and Flatbread-Maker by Homeleader – Best for roti

The electric tortilla maker from Homeleader is a one-stop solution for all your woes about cooking this Mexican delight at home! It presses and cooks dough balls easily and in perfect shapes so that you end up with nothing short of absolutely delectable tortillas, flatbreads or rotis.

Solid stainless steel construction The robust stainless steel construction of the unit accounts for its considerable durability against high external impact. The device further comes with a professional-grade protective spray-painted coating that tosses the question of rust, corrosion, or stains right out of the equation! 10-inch non-stick cooking plates The unit comes with 10-inch non-stick cooking plates which cook substantially sized tortillas effortlessly, without leaving any mess behind. It prevents the food to stick to the plates even while cooking at high temperatures. And, it also makes cleaning considerably easier in every way. Thermostat control The device has a pretty efficient thermostat control where green and red lights indicate the preparation of your food or when you should start up the device. It actually takes around just 5 minutes to reach the highest temperature at a high power of 1200W for fast cooking. You can easily set your preferred cooking temp with the thermostat control.

Safety issues Since the plates get super-hot and there are no protective barriers around the main cooking area, you may run the risk of getting fingers or hand burnt if you’re not careful enough while cooking.

10. Cuisinart CPP-200 – Most versatile tortilla maker

The Cuisinart CPP-200 is an exceedingly functional tortilla-making unit that easily prepares pizzelles, blintzes, pancakes, crepes, and so much more instantly with zero hassle involved!

It presses and cooks the dough balls for your tortillas and cooks them right after so that you don’t have to go through a hundred steps to get the job done.

Entirely thermostat controlled The unit comes with a Power On/Ready To Bake button, which indicates when the unit is ready to cook your food. There are separate knobs on the device to adjust the temperature and timer on the panel. This lets you adjust the cooking time accordingly. Durable and beautiful design The top cover of the unit comes with a locking lid and upright storage unit that has a charming brushed stainless steel construction and design. Not only does this look amazing in any kitchen, but it also makes the unit pretty durable and resistant to rust and corrosion. Dishwasher-safe plates The reversible nonstick plates of the unit are entirely dishwasher safe. This greatly reduces our efforts to tediously wash out the unit (which you shouldn’t exactly do because it’s an electrical device). The plates could be safely kept with other utensils on the dishwashing racks.

Heating issues The product may have some issues with the overall heating where it may fail to achieve even heat distribution.

What Is A Tortilla Press?

Also referred to as “tortilladora” in Mexico, the tortilla press is a round-shaped tool that is used to make corn tortillas. This device consists of two flat round surfaces (about 8 inches each) and a handle which is used to squeeze them together. Sometimes, the press is equipped with an electric unit which when plugged, cooks fresh tortillas on the spot.

To sum up, this tool is designed to crush (and sometimes cook) balls of corn dough until flat round tortillas are formed. However, keep in mind that this device should only be used for making corn tortillas, not flour.

What Is Up With Store-Bought Tortillas?

Tortillas are one of those foods that are best consumed fresh. While many store-bought tortilla brands do their best to achieve that and still contain all the right ingredients (yellow corn masa flour, water, traces of lime), others are not that health-conscious and feature a bunch of controversial additives in the name of “freshness.” You gotta agree, though; Benzoic acid and cellulose gum don’t sound that healthy.

Some brands also contain sugar or other types of sweeteners. While these flavor enhancers may be necessary to balance out the bitterness of other additives, you need to remember that tortillas are not supposed to contain anything sweet. This way you actually sneak more sugar (and calories) into your body without even knowing. Not cool!

Best Tortilla Press Reviews for 2019 – Wooden, aluminum or Cast Iron? used in

Why Use A Tortilla Maker?

If you want to ditch the store-bought stuff for good but still yearn for an occasional burrito, taco or tostada, then investing in a tortilla press is a champion’s choice. However, indulging in your favorite Mexican treats whenever you feel like it is just one of the reasons to buy a tortilla press. Here is why this device should become a countertop staple.

Fresh Equals Healthy

As mentioned above, mass-produced tortillas may contain questionable substances which won’t do your health any favors in the long-term. However, this is not the case when you are in control. Making homemade tortillas helps you steer clear of the artificial stuff merely by choosing the ingredients yourself.

Simple to Use

Despite their intricate looks, tortilla presses are very easy to use. In fact, perfectly shaped, round tortillas are one squeeze away as this tool doesn’t require any special skills such as chopping, cooking or measuring.

Saves You Money

If tortilla-based snacks are a staple around your house, then this device is bound to pay for itself down the line. Unlike the ones available at stores, homemade tortillas cost way less since you can make them in bulk. In this case, buying a household tortilla press is more like an investment.

Types of Tortilla Presses

Even though all tortilla presses are designed to complete the same task, they’re not always made using the same materials. So, chances are you’ll come across various types of the tool in your quest to find the best tortilla press for you. From aluminum to cast iron, here are the four most common types of tortilla presses and their unique qualities.

Wooden Tortilla Press

Still used in Mexico, wooden tortilla presses are usually made of pine wood. Choosing this material is intentional as pine wood is one of the cheapest and softest wood varieties out there. As a result, this type of presses tends to cost less than others. Not too mention that they are lighter and easier to move around. Thanks to the sturdy and durable nature of pine wood, these tools can also be used outdoors.

On the flip side, high-end wood tortilla presses are made of maple, oak or mesquite. All these wood types are kind of expensive and more cumbersome than pine, increasing the total budget and weight of the devices. However, tortilla presses that are made of these types of wood tend to look better than their pine “cousins,” especially after they’re sanded and oiled. Some even say that they give off a royal-like vibe.

No matter the type of wood used, there’s an issue with this kind of presses, and that’s their massive size. Unlike their aluminum, plastic or cast iron counterparts, wooden tortilla makers are usually big in size and can be difficult to store. As a result, they may take up lots of counter space which you may not have the luxury to afford.

Keep in mind, though, that the massive size of wooden presses is not always a problem. In fact, their sturdy and hulking structure may come in quite handy in various cases, one of them being when you press the dough.

Wooden presses are a perfect choice for those of you who want a glimpse of the authentic tortilla-making experience. The tool’s material (wood) is also an excellent fit for anyone who loves the outdoors. That said, you can use wooden tortilla presses during a barbeque, a beach trip or even a family camping excursion.

Cast Iron Tortilla Press

Cast iron presses are -without a doubt- the most popular type of tortilla presses out there. They are also slightly heavy which makes them hard to move around. But, as with wooden presses, their bulky size makes them a safer choice as they are super steady when you get to the pressing part. Plus, the tortillas come out perfectly shaped (no uneven thickness, whatsoever) thanks to the additional weight.

Most of the work in cast iron presses is done by the top plate. Taking advantage of gravity’s effect, the top plate tends to exert the most pressure on the dough ball, forcing it to turn into an even flatbread. That’s why you should really focus on using the top plate as efficiently as possible.

Even though it’s not common, the sturdy material of cast iron presses may scratch, mark or (rarely) crack the counter’s finish. Of course, that only occurs if you are pressing the dough way harder than you should, which is not often required thanks to the tool’s innate bulky structure.

Cast iron tortilla presses are ideal for those of you who want to make perfectly flat tortillas as quickly and efficiently as possible. They are also recommended to those who have enough space on their counter since they are not easy to move around or store.

Aluminum Tortilla Press

Weighing distinctively less than wooden and cast iron presses, aluminum tortilla presses are quite easy to handle and store. However, this doesn’t mean that they are better than the other types. In fact, what they lack in weight, you have to make up in pressing strength. And it’s only a matter of time before they break under the extra pressure.

Their light weight also seems to interfere with the tortillas’ final shape. As the top plate is not bulky enough, it ends up bending in the middle where the dough ball usually lies. That means that the dough is not evenly distributed throughout the bottom plate and is uneven in thickness.

However, these aluminum tools usually cost less than the other types of tortilla presses. But, you have to ask yourself: What matters most? Saving money or making perfect tortillas every time?

Plastic Tortilla Press

The plastic presses are probably the least favorite type of tortilla presses and for a good reason. Given their light weight and flimsy material, these tools are not equipped to put enough pressure on the dough and, thus, produce uneven tortillas.

Besides that, plastic itself usually contains a harmful chemical known as BPA. When consumed in specific quantities, this substance is said to cause various side effects such as metabolic disorders and even cancer. However, that doesn’t mean that all plastic presses contain the chemical. But, if you do decide to opt for a plastic one, make sure to check if it’s BPA-free.

What to Check When Shopping For the Best Tortilla Press

When you’re in the market for a high-quality tortilla press, every detail can make a difference. From the tool’s size to how quickly it can be cleaned, there are a lot of factors which you need to consider. To make your choice (and life) easier, we’ve gathered around the six most essential questions to ask yourself when shopping for a tortilla press.


The first thing you need to consider is whether you need a simple tortilla press or something more than that. What does this mean? The market is packed with electric tortilla makers which not only flatten the tortilla dough to perfection but can also cook it. If you want to stick to the basics, you can either opt for a wooden or a non-electric cast iron press.

However, if you want to save as much time as possible when making tortillas and skip the cooking part, then the conventional types are not for you. Instead, go for an electric tortilla press which will do all the cooking for you.


The thing is that most tortilla presses can be quite bulky. That’s why you first need to consider how much counter or cupboard space you can actually afford. If you do have enough space, then don’t be afraid to give wooden or cast iron presses a spin. Thanks to their sturdy structure, these two can flatten the tortillas almost perfectly. However, if your kitchen is rather small, you can always opt for aluminum or plastic presses.

Cleaning Ease

Given their simple design, these tortilla-making tools are very easy to clean. All you need to do is rinse both plates (top and bottom), and it’s as good as new. However, some are easier to clean than others. That mostly depends on the tool’s materials. That said, cast iron presses are usually the easiest to clean. Also, note that tortilla presses are not dishwasher safe.

Inner Coating (For Cast Iron Presses Only)

Word of advice: The inside coating of cast iron press tends to scrape away with time, leaving some of its remnants in the tortillas. That said, you need to choose a tool with a high-quality finish to prevent the cast iron from rusting. So, as a solution, manufacturers recommend you either buy presses enriched with a silver or powder coating or tortilla makers that have no coating (paint) at all.

Extra Features

Many electric tortilla presses come with a built-in indicator light which automatically turns on when the flatbreads are cooked. However, this feature is not that common, so you may need to do a little extra digging to unearth such press models.

How to Use A Taco Press

Even though it may look scary to a newbie, using a tortilla press is actually a straightforward task. If you’re still not convinced, these eight foolproof steps will guide through the magic that is known as “making my own tortillas.”

Prepare the dough. You can either buy the dough (often called masa) at a local Mexican store or make some yourself, depending on your needs and health goals. Divide the dough into golf ball-sized balls and set them aside. Prep the tortilla press. Even if you’ve bought a non-stick maker, you can never be too safe. So, to avoid dough drama, cut two squares of wax paper or plastic. Make sure they are just about the size of the tool’s plates. Then, place one of them on top of the bottom plate. Place the dough on the press. Take one of the dough balls and locate it at the center of the maker. Cover the dough balls with the second wax paper or plastic. Press down the dough. Firmly grab the tool’s handle and press down on the dough as hard as possible. Lift the handle. You’ll notice that the dough has flattened a bit but not enough. Flip the tortilla over. Press the dough down for a second time as firmly as possible. Repeat this step as many times as necessary to flatten the tortilla to your liking. Remove the waxed paper or plastic. Now that the tortilla is flat enough, peel the waxed paper or plastic away. It’s cooking time!

Final Thoughts

Whether you are a big fan of burritos and want to cut back on the store-bought stuff or just love to enjoy an occasional taquito without all the additives, tortilla presses are the way to go. These budget-friendly tools are the perfect excuse to start eating healthy without giving up on your favorite Mexican dishes. Are you up to the challenge? Then, get your tortilla press today!